Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part IIa/Q44

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Q43 Q45



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Iª-IIae q. 44 pr. Deinde considerandum est de effectibus timoris. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, utrum timor faciat contractionem. Secundo, utrum faciat consiliativos. Tertio, utrum faciat tremorem. Quarto, utrum impediat operationem. Question 44. The effects of fear Does fear cause contraction? Does it make men suitable for counsel? Does it make one tremble? Does it hinder action?
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod timor non faciat contractionem. Contractione enim facta, calor et spiritus ad interiora revocantur. Sed ex multitudine caloris et spirituum in interioribus, magnificatur cor ad audacter aliquid aggrediendum, ut patet in iratis, cuius contrarium in timore accidit. Non ergo timor facit contractionem. Objection 1. It would seem that fear does not cause contraction. For when contraction takes place, the heat and vital spirits are withdrawn inwardly. But accumulation of heat and vital spirits in the interior parts of the body, dilates the heart unto endeavors of daring, as may be seen in those who are angered: while the contrary happens in those who are afraid. Therefore fear does not cause contraction.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, multiplicatis spiritibus et calore in interioribus per contractionem, sequitur quod homo in vocem prorumpat, ut patet in dolentibus. Sed timentes non emittunt vocem, sed magis redduntur taciturni. Ergo timor non facit contractionem. Objection 2. Further, when, as a result of contraction, the vital spirits and heat are accumulated in the interior parts, man cries out, as may be seen in those who are in pain. But those who fear utter nothing: on the contrary they lose their speech. Therefore fear does not cause contraction.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, verecundia est quaedam species timoris, ut supra dictum est. Sed verecundati rubescunt, ut dicit Tullius, IV de Tusculanis quaest., et philosophus in IV Ethic. Rubor autem faciei non attestatur contractioni, sed contrario. Non ergo contractio est effectus timoris. Objection 3. Further, shame is a kind of fear, as stated above (Question 41, Article 4). But "those who are ashamed blush," as Cicero (De Quaest. Tusc. iv, 8), and the Philosopher (Ethic. iv, 9) observe. But blushing is an indication, not of contraction, but of the reverse. Therefore contraction is not an effect of fear.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod Damascenus dicit, in III libro, quod timor est virtus secundum systolen, idest secundum contractionem. On the contrary, Damascene says (De Fide Orth. ii, 23) that "fear is a power according to systole," i.e. contraction.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, in passionibus animae est sicut formale ipse motus appetitivae potentiae, sicut autem materiale transmutatio corporalis, quorum unum alteri proportionatur. Unde secundum similitudinem et rationem appetitivi motus, sequitur corporalis transmutatio. Quantum autem ad animalem motum appetitus, timor contractionem quandam importat. Cuius ratio est, quia timor provenit ex phantasia alicuius mali imminentis quod difficile repelli potest, ut supra dictum est. Quod autem aliquid difficile possit repelli, provenit ex debilitate virtutis, ut supra dictum est. Virtus autem, quanto est debilior, tanto ad pauciora se potest extendere. Et ideo ex ipsa imaginatione quae causat timorem, sequitur quaedam contractio in appetitu. Sicut etiam videmus in morientibus quod natura retrahitur ad interiora, propter debilitatem virtutis, et videmus etiam in civitatibus quod, quando cives timent, retrahunt se ab exterioribus, et recurrunt, quantum possunt, ad interiora. Et secundum similitudinem huius contractionis, quae pertinet ad appetitum animalem, sequitur etiam in timore ex parte corporis, contractio caloris et spirituum ad interiora. I answer that, As stated above (Question 28, Article 5), in the passions of the soul, the formal element is the movement of the appetitive power, while the bodily transmutation is the material element. Both of these are mutually proportionate; and consequently the bodily transmutation assumes a resemblance to and the very nature of the appetitive movement. Now, as to the appetitive movement of the soul, fear implies a certain contraction: the reason of which is that fear arises from the imagination of some threatening evil which is difficult to repel, as stated above (Question 41, Article 2). But that a thing be difficult to repel is due to lack of power, as stated above (Question 43, Article 2): and the weaker a power is, the fewer the things to which it extends. Wherefore from the very imagination that causes fear there ensues a certain contraction in the appetite. Thus we observe in one who is dying that nature withdraws inwardly, on account of the lack of power: and again we see the inhabitants of a city, when seized with fear, leave the outskirts, and, as far as possible, make for the inner quarters. It is in resemblance to this contraction, which pertains to the appetite of the soul, that in fear a similar contraction of heat and vital spirits towards the inner parts takes place in regard to the body.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut philosophus dicit in libro de problematibus, licet in timentibus retrahantur spiritus ab exterioribus ad interiora, non tamen est idem motus spirituum in iratis et timentibus. Nam in iratis, propter calorem et subtilitatem spirituum, quae proveniunt ex appetitu vindictae, interius fit spirituum motus ab inferioribus ad superiora, et ideo congregantur spiritus et calor circa cor. Ex quo sequitur quod irati redduntur prompti et audaces ad invadendum. Sed in timentibus, propter frigiditatem ingrossantem, spiritus moventur a superioribus ad inferiora, quae quidem frigiditas contingit ex imaginatione defectus virtutis. Et ideo non multiplicantur calor et spiritus circa cor, sed magis a corde refugiunt. Et propter hoc, timentes non prompte invadunt, sed magis refugiunt. Reply to Objection 1. As the Philosopher says (De Problem. xxvii, 3), although in those who fear, the vital spirits recede from outer to the inner parts of the body, yet the movement of vital spirits is not the same in those who are angry and those who are afraid. For in those who are angry, by reason of the heat and subtlety of the vital spirits, which result from the craving for vengeance, the inward movement has an upward direction: wherefore the vital spirits and heat concentrate around the heart: the result being that an angry man is quick and brave in attacking. But in those who are afraid, on account of the condensation caused by cold, the vital spirits have a downward movement; the said cold being due to the imagined lack of power. Consequently the heat and vital spirits abandon the heart instead of concentrating around it: the result being that a man who is afraid is not quick to attack, but is more inclined to run away.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod naturale est cuilibet dolenti, sive homini sive animali, quod utatur quocumque auxilio potest, ad repellendum nocivum praesens quod infert dolorem, unde videmus quod animalia dolentia percutiunt vel faucibus vel cornibus. Maximum autem auxilium ad omnia in animalibus est calor et spiritus. Et ideo in dolore natura conservat calorem et spiritum interius, ut hoc utatur ad repellendum nocivum. Et ideo philosophus dicit, in libro de problematibus, quod multiplicatis introrsum spiritibus et calore, necesse est quod emittantur per vocem. Et propter hoc, dolentes vix se possunt continere quin clament. Sed in timentibus fit motus interioris caloris et spirituum a corde ad inferiora, ut dictum est. Et ideo timor contrariatur formationi vocis, quae fit per emissionem spirituum ad superiora per os. Et propter hoc, timor tacentes facit. Et inde est etiam quod timor trementes facit, ut dicit philosophus, in libro de problematibus. Reply to Objection 2. To everyone that is in pain, whether man or animal, it is natural to use all possible means of repelling the harmful thing that causes pain but its presence: thus we observe that animals, when in pain, attack with their jaws or with their horns. Now the greatest help for all purposes, in animals, is heat and vital spirits: wherefore when they are in pain, their nature stores up the heat and vital spirits within them, in order to make use thereof in repelling the harmful object. Hence the Philosopher says (De Problem. xxvii, 9) when the vital spirits and heat are concentrated together within, they require to find a vent in the voice: for which reason those who are in pain can scarcely refrain from crying aloud. On the other hand, in those who are afraid, the internal heat and vital spirits move from the heart downwards, as stated above (ad 1): wherefore fear hinders speech which ensues from the emission of the vital spirits in an upward direction through the mouth: the result being that fear makes its subject speechless. For this reason, too, fear "makes its subject tremble," as the Philosopher says (De Problem. xxvii, 1,6,7).
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod pericula mortis non solum contrariantur appetitui animali, sed etiam contrariantur naturae. Et propter hoc, in huiusmodi timore non solum fit contractio ex parte appetitus, sed etiam ex parte naturae corporalis, sic enim disponitur animal ex imaginatione mortis contrahens calorem ad interiora, sicut quando naturaliter mors imminet. Et inde est quod timentes mortem pallescunt, ut dicitur in IV Ethic. Sed malum quod timet verecundia, non opponitur naturae, sed solum appetitui animali. Et ideo fit quidem contractio secundum appetitum animalem, non autem secundum naturam corporalem, sed magis anima, quasi in se contracta, vacat ad motionem spirituum et caloris, unde fit eorum diffusio ad exteriora. Et propter hoc, verecundati rubescunt. Reply to Objection 3. Mortal perils are contrary not only to the appetite of the soul, but also to nature. Consequently in such like fear, there is contraction not only in the appetite, but also in the corporeal nature: for when an animal is moved by the imagination of death, it experiences a contraction of heat towards the inner parts of the body, as though it were threatened by a natural death. Hence it is that "those who are in fear of death turn pale" (Ethic. iv, 9). But the evil that shame fears, is contrary, not to nature, but only to the appetite of the soul. Consequently there results a contraction in this appetite, but not in the corporeal nature; in fact, the soul, as though contracted in itself, is free to set the vital spirits and heat in movement, so that they spread to the outward parts of the body: the result being that those who are ashamed blush.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod timor non faciat consiliativos. Non enim est eiusdem consiliativos facere, et consilium impedire. Sed timor consilium impedit, omnis enim passio perturbat quietem, quae requiritur ad bonum usum rationis. Ergo timor non facit consiliativos. Objection 1. It would seem that fear does not make one suitable for counsel. For the same thing cannot be conducive to counsel, and a hindrance thereto. But fear hinders counsel: because every passion disturbs repose, which is requisite for the good use of reason. Therefore fear does not make a man suitable for counsel.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, consilium est actus rationis de futuris cogitantis et deliberantis. Sed aliquis timor est excutiens cogitata, et mentem a suo loco removet, ut Tullius dicit, in IV de Tusculanis quaest. Ergo timor non facit consiliativos, sed magis impedit consilium. Objection 2. Further, counsel is an act of reason, in thinking and deliberating about the future. But a certain fear "drives away all thought, and dislocates the mind," as Cicero observes (De Quaest. Tusc. iv, 8). Therefore fear does not conduce to counsel, but hinders it.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, sicut consilium adhibetur ad vitanda mala, ita etiam adhibetur ad consequenda bona. Sed sicut timor est de malis vitandis, ita spes est de bonis consequendis. Ergo timor non facit magis consiliativos quam spes. Objection 3. Further, just as we have recourse to counsel in order to avoid evil, so do we, in order to attain good things. But whereas fear is of evil to be avoided, so is hope of good things to be obtained. Therefore fear is not more conducive to counsel, than hope is.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod philosophus dicit, in II Rhetoric., quod timor consiliativos facit. On the contrary, The Philosopher says (Rhet. ii, 5) that "fear makes men of counsel."
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod aliquis potest dici consiliativus dupliciter. Uno modo, a voluntate seu sollicitudine consiliandi. Et sic timor consiliativos facit. Quia, ut philosophus in III Ethic. dicit, consiliamur de magnis, in quibus quasi nobis ipsis discredimus. Ea autem quae timorem incutiunt, non sunt simpliciter mala, sed habent quandam magnitudinem, tum ex eo quod apprehenduntur ut quae difficiliter repelli possunt; tum etiam quia apprehenduntur ut de prope existentia, sicut iam dictum est. Unde homines maxime in timoribus quaerunt consiliari. Alio modo dicitur aliquis consiliativus, a facultate bene consiliandi. Et sic nec timor, nec aliqua passio consiliativos facit. Quia homini affecto secundum aliquam passionem, videtur aliquid vel maius vel minus quam sit secundum rei veritatem, sicut amanti videntur ea quae amat, meliora; et timenti, ea quae timet, terribiliora. Et sic ex defectu rectitudinis iudicii, quaelibet passio, quantum est de se, impedit facultatem bene consiliandi. I answer that, A man of counsel may be taken in two ways. First, from his being willing or anxious to take counsel. And thus fear makes men of counsel. Because, as the Philosopher says (Ethic. iii, 3), "we take counsel on great matters, because therein we distrust ourselves." Now things which make us afraid, are not simply evil, but have a certain magnitude, both because they seem difficult to repel, and because they are apprehended as near to us, as stated above (Question 42, Article 2). Wherefore men seek for counsel especially when they are afraid. Secondly, a man of counsel means one who is apt for giving good counsel: and in this sense, neither fear nor any passion makes men of counsel. Because when a man is affected by a passion, things seem to him greater or smaller than they really are: thus to a lover, what he loves seems better; to him that fears, what he fears seems more dreadful. Consequently owing to the want of right judgment, every passion, considered in itself, hinders the faculty of giving good counsel.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 ad 1 Et per hoc patet responsio ad primum. This suffices for the Reply to the First Objection.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod quanto aliqua passio est fortior, tanto magis homo secundum ipsam affectus, impeditur. Et ideo quando timor fuerit fortis, vult quidem homo consiliari, sed adeo perturbatur in suis cogitationibus, quod consilium adinvenire non potest. Si autem sit parvus timor, qui sollicitudinem consiliandi inducat, nec multum rationem conturbet; potest etiam conferre ad facultatem bene consiliandi, ratione sollicitudinis consequentis. Reply to Objection 2. The stronger a passion is, the greater the hindrance is it to the man who is swayed by it. Consequently, when fear is intense, man does indeed wish to take counsel, but his thoughts are so disturbed, that he can find no counsel. If, however, the fear be slight, so as to make a man wish to take counsel, without gravely disturbing the reason; it may even make it easier for him to take good counsel, by reason of his ensuing carefulness.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod etiam spes facit consiliativos, quia, ut in II Rhetoric. philosophus dicit, nullus consiliatur de his de quibus desperat; sicut nec de impossibilibus, ut dicitur in III Ethic. Timor tamen facit magis consiliativos quam spes. Quia spes est de bono, prout possumus ipsum consequi, timor autem de malo, prout vix repelli potest, et ita magis respicit rationem difficilis timor quam spes. In difficilibus autem, maxime in quibus nobis non confidimus, consiliamur, sicut dictum est. Reply to Objection 3. Hope also makes man a good counsellor: because, as the Philosopher says (Rhet. ii, 5), "no man takes counsel in matters he despairs of," nor about impossible things, as he says in Ethic. iii, 3. But fear incites to counsel more than hope does. Because hope is of good things, as being possible of attainment; whereas fear is of evil things, as being difficult to repel, so that fear regards the aspect of difficulty more than hope does. And it is in matters of difficulty, especially when we distrust ourselves, that we take counsel, as stated above.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod tremor non sit effectus timoris. Tremor enim ex frigore accidit, videmus enim infrigidatos tremere. Timor autem non videtur causare frigus, sed magis calorem desiccantem, cuius signum est quod timentes sitiunt, et praecipue in maximis timoribus, sicut patet in illis qui ad mortem ducuntur. Ergo timor non causat tremorem. Objection 1. It would seem that trembling is not an effect of fear. Because trembling is occasioned by cold; thus we observe that a cold person trembles. Now fear does not seem to make one cold, but rather to cause a parching heat: a sign whereof is that those who fear are thirsty, especially if their fear be very great, as in the case of those who are being led to execution. Therefore fear does not cause trembling.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, emissio superfluitatum ex calore accidit, unde, ut plurimum, medicinae laxativae sunt calidae. Sed huiusmodi emissiones superfluitatum ex timore frequenter contingunt. Ergo timor videtur causare calorem. Et sic non causat tremorem. Objection 2. Further, faecal evacuation is occasioned by heat; hence laxative medicines are generally warm. But these evacuations are often caused by fear. Therefore fear apparently causes heat; and consequently does not cause trembling.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, in timore calor ab exterioribus ad interiora revocatur. Si igitur propter huiusmodi revocationem caloris, in exterioribus homo tremit; videtur quod similiter in omnibus exterioribus membris deberet causari tremor ex timore. Hoc autem non videtur. Non ergo tremor corporis est effectus timoris. Objection 3. Further, in fear, the heat is withdrawn from the outer to the inner parts of the body. If, therefore, man trembles in his outward parts, through the heat being withdrawn thus; it seems that fear should cause this trembling in all the external members. But such is not the case. Therefore trembling of the body is not caused by fear.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod Tullius dicit, in IV de Tusculanis quaest., quod terrorem sequitur tremor, et pallor, et dentium crepitus. On the contrary, Cicero says (De Quaest. Tusc. iv, 8) that "fear is followed by trembling, pallor and chattering of the teeth."
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, in timore fit quaedam contractio ab exterioribus ad interiora, et ideo exteriora frigida remanent. Et propter hoc in eis accidit tremor, qui causatur ex debilitate virtutis continentis membra, ad huiusmodi autem debilitatem maxime facit defectus caloris, qui est instrumentum quo anima movet, ut dicitur in II de anima. I answer that, As stated above (Article 1), in fear there takes place a certain contraction from the outward to the inner parts of the body, the result being that the outer parts become cold; and for this reason trembling is occasioned in these parts, being caused by a lack of power in controlling the members: which lack of power is due to the want of heat, which is the instrument whereby the soul moves those members, as stated in De Anima ii, 4.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, calore ab exterioribus ad interiora revocato, multiplicatur calor interius, et maxime versus inferiora, idest circa nutritivam. Et ideo, consumpto humido, consequitur sitis, et etiam interdum solutio ventris, et urinae emissio, et quandoque etiam seminis. Vel huiusmodi emissio superfluitatum accidit propter contractionem ventris et testiculorum, ut philosophus dicit, in libro de problematibus. Reply to Objection 1. When the heat withdraws from the outer to the inner parts, the inward heat increases, especially in the inferior or nutritive parts. Consequently the humid element being spent, thirst ensues; sometimes indeed the result is a loosening of the bowels, and urinary or even seminal evacuation. Or else such like evacuations are due to contraction of the abdomen and testicles, as the Philosopher says (De Problem. xxii, 11).
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 ad 2 Unde patet solutio ad secundum. This suffices for the Reply to the Second Objection.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod, quia in timore calor deserit cor, a superioribus ad inferiora tendens, ideo timentibus maxime tremit cor, et membra quae habent aliquam connexionem ad pectus, ubi est cor. Unde timentes maxime tremunt in voce, propter vicinitatem vocalis arteriae ad cor. Tremit etiam labium inferius, et tota inferior mandibula, propter continuationem ad cor, unde et crepitus dentium sequitur. Et eadem ratione brachia et manus tremunt. Vel etiam quia huiusmodi membra sunt magis mobilia. Propter quod et genua tremunt timentibus; secundum illud Isaiae XXXV, confortate manus dissolutas, et genua trementia roborate. Reply to Objection 3. In fear, heat abandons the heart, with a downward movement: hence in those who are afraid the heart especially trembles, as also those members which are connected with the breast where the heart resides. Hence those who fear tremble especially in their speech, on account of the tracheal artery being near the heart. The lower lip, too, and the lower jaw tremble, through their connection with the heart; which explains the chattering of the teeth. For the same reason the arms and hands tremble. Or else because the aforesaid members are more mobile. For which reason the knees tremble in those who are afraid, according to Isaiah 35:3: "Strengthen ye the feeble hands, and confirm the trembling [Vulgate: 'weak'] knees."
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod timor impediat operationem. Operatio enim maxime impeditur ex perturbatione rationis, quae dirigit in opere. Sed timor perturbat rationem, ut dictum est. Ergo timor impedit operationem. Objection 1. It would seem that fear hinders action. For action is hindered chiefly by a disturbance in the reason, which directs action. But fear disturbs reason, as stated above (Article 2). Therefore fear hinders action.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, illi qui faciunt aliquid cum timore, facilius in operando deficiunt, sicut si aliquis incedat super trabem in alto positam, propter timorem de facili cadit; non autem caderet, si incederet super eandem trabem in imo positam, propter defectum timoris. Ergo timor impedit operationem. Objection 2. Further, those who fear while doing anything, are more apt to fail: thus a man who walks on a plank placed aloft, easily falls through fear; whereas, if he were to walk on the same plank down below, he would not fall, through not being afraid. Therefore fear hinders action.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, pigritia, sive segnities, est quaedam species timoris. Sed pigritia impedit operationem. Ergo et timor. Objection 3. Further, laziness or sloth is a kind of fear. But laziness hinders action. Therefore fear does too.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est quod apostolus dicit, ad Philipp. II, cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamini, quod non diceret, si timor bonam operationem impediret. Timor ergo non impedit bonam operationem. On the contrary, The Apostle says (Philippians 2:12): "With fear and trembling work out your salvation": and he would not say this if fear were a hindrance to a good work. Therefore fear does not hinder a good action.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod operatio hominis exterior causatur quidem ab anima sicut a primo movente, sed a membris corporeis sicut ab instrumentis. Contingit autem operationem impediri et propter defectum instrumenti, et propter defectum principalis moventis. Ex parte igitur instrumentorum corporalium, timor, quantum est de se, semper natus est impedire exteriorem operationem, propter defectum caloris qui ex timore accidit in exterioribus membris. Sed ex parte animae, si sit timor moderatus, non multum rationem perturbans; confert ad bene operandum, inquantum causat quandam sollicitudinem, et facit hominem attentius consiliari et operari. Si vero timor tantum increscat quod rationem perturbet, impedit operationem etiam ex parte animae. Sed de tali timore apostolus non loquitur. I answer that, Man's exterior actions are caused by the soul as first mover, but by the bodily members as instruments. Now action may be hindered both by defect of the instrument, and by defect of the principal mover. On the part of the bodily instruments, fear, considered in itself, is always apt to hinder exterior action, on account of the outward members being deprived, through fear, of their heat. But on the part of the soul, if the fear be moderate, without much disturbance of the reason, it conduces to working well, in so far as it causes a certain solicitude, and makes a man take counsel and work with greater attention. If, however, fear increases so much as to disturb the reason, it hinders action even on the part of the soul. But of such a fear the Apostle does not speak.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 ad 1 Et per haec patet responsio ad primum. This suffices for the Reply to the First Objection.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod illi qui cadunt de trabe in alto posita, patiuntur perturbationem imaginationis, propter timorem casus imaginati. Reply to Objection 2. He that falls from a plank placed aloft, suffers a disturbance of his imagination, through fear of the fall that is pictured to his imagination.
Iª-IIae q. 44 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod omnis timens refugit id quod timet, et ideo, cum pigritia sit timor de ipsa operatione, inquantum est laboriosa, impedit operationem, quia retrahit voluntatem ab ipsa. Sed timor qui est de aliis rebus, intantum adiuvat operationem, inquantum inclinat voluntatem ad operandum ea per quae homo effugit id quod timet. Reply to Objection 3. Everyone in fear shuns that which he fears: and therefore, since laziness is a fear of work itself as being toilsome, it hinders work by withdrawing the will from it. But fear of other things conduces to action, in so far as it inclines the will to do that whereby a man escapes from what he fears.

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