Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part IIa/Q101

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Q100 Q102



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Iª-IIae q. 101 pr. Consequenter considerandum est de praeceptis caeremonialibus. Et primo, de ipsis secundum se; secundo, de causa eorum; tertio, de duratione ipsorum. Circa primum quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, quae sit ratio praeceptorum caeremonialium. Secundo, utrum sint figuralia. Tertio, utrum debuerint esse multa. Quarto, de distinctione ipsorum. Question 101. The ceremonial precepts in themselves The nature of the ceremonial precepts Are they figurative? Should there have been many of them? Their various kinds
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod ratio praeceptorum caeremonialium non in hoc consistat quod pertinent ad cultum Dei. In lege enim veteri dantur Iudaeis quaedam praecepta de abstinentia ciborum, ut patet Levit. XI; et etiam de abstinendo ab aliquibus vestimentis, sicut illud Levit. XIX, vestem quae ex duobus texta est, non indueris; et iterum quod praecipitur Num. XV, ut faciant sibi fimbrias per angulos palliorum. Sed huiusmodi non sunt praecepta moralia, quia non manent in nova lege. Nec etiam iudicialia, quia non pertinent ad iudicium faciendum inter homines. Ergo sunt caeremonialia. Sed in nullo pertinere videntur ad cultum Dei. Ergo non est ratio caeremonialium praeceptorum quod pertineant ad cultum Dei. Objection 1. It would seem that the nature of the ceremonial precepts does not consist in their pertaining to the worship of God. Because, in the Old Law, the Jews were given certain precepts about abstinence from food (Leviticus 11); and about refraining from certain kinds of clothes, e.g. (Leviticus 19:19): "Thou shalt not wear a garment that is woven of two sorts"; and again (Numbers 15:38): "To make to themselves fringes in the corners of their garments." But these are not moral precepts; since they do not remain in the New Law. Nor are they judicial precepts; since they do not pertain to the pronouncing of judgment between man and man. Therefore they are ceremonial precepts. Yet they seem in no way to pertain to the worship of God. Therefore the nature of the ceremonial precepts does not consist in their pertaining to Divine worship.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, dicunt quidam quod praecepta caeremonialia dicuntur illa quae pertinent ad solemnitates, quasi dicerentur a cereis, qui in solemnitatibus accenduntur. Sed multa alia sunt pertinentia ad cultum Dei praeter solemnitates. Ergo non videtur quod praecepta caeremonialia ea ratione dicantur, quia pertinent ad cultum Dei. Objection 2. Further, some state that the ceremonial precepts are those which pertain to solemnities; as though they were so called from the "cerei" [candles] which are lit up on those occasions. But many other things besides solemnities pertain to the worship of God. Therefore it does not seem that the ceremonial precepts are so called from their pertaining to the Divine worship.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, secundum quosdam praecepta caeremonialia dicuntur quasi normae, idest regulae, salutis, nam chaire in Graeco idem est quod salve. Sed omnia praecepta legis sunt regulae salutis, et non solum illa quae pertinent ad Dei cultum. Ergo non solum illa praecepta dicuntur caeremonialia quae pertinent ad cultum Dei. Objection 3. Further, some say that the ceremonial precepts are patterns, i.e. rules, of salvation: because the Greek chaire is the same as the Latin "salve." But all the precepts of the Law are rules of salvation, and not only those that pertain to the worship of God. Therefore not only those precepts which pertain to Divine worship are called ceremonial.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 arg. 4 Praeterea, Rabbi Moyses dicit quod praecepta caeremonialia dicuntur quorum ratio non est manifesta. Sed multa pertinentia ad cultum Dei habent rationem manifestam, sicut observatio sabbati, et celebratio phase et Scenopegiae, et multorum aliorum, quorum ratio assignatur in lege. Ergo caeremonialia non sunt quae pertinent ad cultum Dei. Objection 4. Further, Rabbi Moses says (Doct. Perplex. iii) that the ceremonial precepts are those for which there is no evident reason. But there is evident reason for many things pertaining to the worship of God; such as the observance of the Sabbath, the feasts of the Passover and of the Tabernacles, and many other things, the reason for which is set down in the Law. Therefore the ceremonial precepts are not those which pertain to the worship of God.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Exod. XVIII, esto populo in his quae ad Deum pertinent, ostendasque populo caeremonias et ritum colendi. On the contrary, It is written (Exodus 18:19-20): "Be thou to the people in those things that pertain to God . . . and . . . shew the people the ceremonies and the manner of worshipping."
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, caeremonialia praecepta determinant praecepta moralia in ordine ad Deum, sicut iudicialia determinant praecepta moralia in ordine ad proximum. Homo autem ordinatur ad Deum per debitum cultum. Et ideo caeremonialia proprie dicuntur quae ad cultum Dei pertinent. Ratio autem huius nominis posita est supra, ubi praecepta caeremonialia ab aliis sunt distincta. I answer that, As stated above (Question 99, Article 4), the ceremonial precepts are determinations of the moral precepts whereby man is directed to God, just as the judicial precepts are determinations of the moral precepts whereby he is directed to his neighbor. Now man is directed to God by the worship due to Him. Wherefore those precepts are properly called ceremonial, which pertain to the Divine worship. The reason for their being so called was given above (Question 99, Article 3), when we established the distinction between the ceremonial and the other precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod ad cultum Dei pertinent non solum sacrificia et alia huiusmodi, quae immediate ad Deum ordinari videntur, sed etiam debita praeparatio colentium Deum ad cultum ipsius, sicut etiam in aliis quaecumque sunt praeparatoria ad finem, cadunt sub scientia quae est de fine. Huiusmodi autem praecepta quae dantur in lege de vestibus et cibis colentium Deum, et aliis huiusmodi, pertinent ad quandam praeparationem ipsorum ministrantium, ut sint idonei ad cultum Dei, sicut etiam specialibus observantiis aliqui utuntur qui sunt in ministerio regis. Unde etiam sub praeceptis caeremonialibus continentur. Reply to Objection 1. The Divine worship includes not only sacrifices and the like, which seem to be directed to God immediately, but also those things whereby His worshippers are duly prepared to worship Him: thus too in other matters, whatever is preparatory to the end comes under the science whose object is the end. Accordingly those precepts of the Law which regard the clothing and food of God's worshippers, and other such matters, pertain to a certain preparation of the ministers, with the view of fitting them for the Divine worship: just as those who administer to a king make use of certain special observances. Consequently such are contained under the ceremonial precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod illa expositio nominis non videtur esse multum conveniens, praesertim cum non multum inveniatur in lege quod in solemnitatibus cerei accenderentur, sed in ipso etiam candelabro lucernae cum oleo olivarum praeparabantur, ut patet Lev. XXIV. Nihilominus tamen potest dici quod in solemnitatibus omnia illa quae pertinebant ad cultum Dei, diligentius observabantur, et secundum hoc, in observatione solemnitatum omnia caeremonialia includuntur. Reply to Objection 2. The alleged explanation of the name does not seem very probable: especially as the Law does not contain many instances of the lighting of candles in solemnities; since, even the lamps of the Candlestick were furnished with "oil of olives," as stated in Leviticus 24:2. Nevertheless we may say that all things pertaining to the Divine worship were more carefully observed on solemn festivals: so that all ceremonial precepts may be included under the observance of solemnities.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod nec illa expositio nominis videtur esse multum conveniens, nomen enim caeremoniae non est Graecum, sed Latinum. Potest tamen dici quod, cum salus hominis sit a Deo, praecipue illa praecepta videntur esse salutis regulae, quae hominem ordinant ad Deum. Et sic caeremonialia dicuntur quae ad cultum Dei pertinent. Reply to Objection 3. Neither does this explanation of the name appear to be very much to the point, since the word "ceremony" is not Greek but Latin. We may say, however, that, since man's salvation is from God, those precepts above all seem to be rules of salvation, which direct man to God: and accordingly those which refer to Divine worship are called ceremonial precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 1 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod illa ratio caeremonialium est quodammodo probabilis, non quod ex eo dicuntur caeremonialia quia eorum ratio non est manifesta; sed hoc est quoddam consequens. Quia enim praecepta ad cultum Dei pertinentia oportet esse figuralia, ut infra dicetur, inde est quod eorum ratio non est adeo manifesta. Reply to Objection 4. This explanation of the ceremonial precepts has a certain amount of probability: not that they are called ceremonial precisely because there is no evident reason for them; this is a kind of consequence. For, since the precepts referring to the Divine worship must needs be figurative, as we shall state further on (2), the consequence is that the reason for them is not so very evident.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod praecepta caeremonialia non sint figuralia. Pertinet enim ad officium cuiuslibet doctoris ut sic pronunciet ut de facili intelligi possit, sicut Augustinus dicit, in IV de Doctr. Christ. Et hoc maxime videtur esse necessarium in legis latione, quia praecepta legis populo proponuntur. Unde lex debet esse manifesta, ut Isidorus dicit. Si igitur praecepta caeremonialia data sunt in alicuius rei figuram, videtur inconvenienter tradidisse huiusmodi praecepta Moyses, non exponens quid figurarent. Objection 1. It would seem that the ceremonial precepts are not figurative. For it is the duty of every teacher to express himself in such a way as to be easily understood, as Augustine states (De Doctr. Christ. iv, 4,10) and this seems very necessary in the framing of a law: because precepts of law are proposed to the populace; for which reason a law should be manifest, as Isidore declares (Etym. v, 21). If therefore the precepts of the Law were given as figures of something, it seems unbecoming that Moses should have delivered these precepts without explaining what they signified.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, ea quae in cultum Dei aguntur, maxime debent honestatem habere. Sed facere aliqua facta ad alia repraesentanda, videtur esse theatricum, sive poeticum, in theatris enim repraesentabantur olim per aliqua quae ibi gerebantur, quaedam aliorum facta. Ergo videtur quod huiusmodi non debeant fieri ad cultum Dei. Sed caeremonialia ordinantur ad cultum Dei, ut dictum est. Ergo caeremonialia non debent esse figuralia. Objection 2. Further, whatever is done for the worship of God, should be entirely free from unfittingness. But the performance of actions in representation of others, seems to savor of the theatre or of the drama: because formerly the actions performed in theatres were done to represent the actions of others. Therefore it seems that such things should not be done for the worship of God. But the ceremonial precepts are ordained to the Divine worship, as stated above (Article 1). Therefore they should not be figurative.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in Enchirid., quod Deus maxime colitur fide, spe et caritate. Sed praecepta quae dantur de fide, spe et caritate, non sunt figuralia. Ergo praecepta caeremonialia non debent esse figuralia. Objection 3. Further, Augustine says (Enchiridion iii, iv) that "God is worshipped chiefly by faith, hope, and charity." But the precepts of faith, hope, and charity are not figurative. Therefore the ceremonial precepts should not be figurative.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 arg. 4 Praeterea, dominus dicit, Ioan. IV, spiritus est Deus, et eos qui adorant eum, in spiritu et veritate adorare oportet. Sed figura non est ipsa veritas, immo contra se invicem dividuntur. Ergo caeremonialia, quae pertinent ad cultum Dei, non debent esse figuralia. Objection 4. Further, Our Lord said (John 4:24): "God is a spirit, and they that adore Him, must adore Him in spirit and in truth." But a figure is not the very truth: in fact one is condivided with the other. Therefore the ceremonial precepts, which refer to the Divine worship, should not be figurative.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod apostolus dicit, ad Colos. II, nemo vos iudicet in cibo aut in potu, aut in parte diei festi aut Neomeniae aut sabbatorum, quae sunt umbra futurorum. On the contrary, The Apostle says (Colossians 2:16-17): "Let no man . . . judge you in meat or in drink, or in respect of a festival day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbaths, which are a shadow of things to come."
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut iam dictum est, praecepta caeremonialia dicuntur quae ordinantur ad cultum Dei. Est autem duplex cultus Dei, interior, et exterior. Cum enim homo sit compositus ex anima et corpore, utrumque debet applicari ad colendum Deum, ut scilicet anima colat interiori cultu, et corpus exteriori, unde dicitur in Psalmo LXXXIII, cor meum et caro mea exultaverunt in Deum vivum. Et sicut corpus ordinatur in Deum per animam, ita cultus exterior ordinatur ad interiorem cultum. Consistit autem interior cultus in hoc quod anima coniungatur Deo per intellectum et affectum. Et ideo secundum quod diversimode intellectus et affectus colentis Deum Deo recte coniungitur, secundum hoc diversimode exteriores actus hominis ad cultum Dei applicantur. In statu enim futurae beatitudinis, intellectus humanus ipsam divinam veritatem in seipsa intuebitur. Et ideo exterior cultus non consistet in aliqua figura, sed solum in laude Dei, quae procedit ex interiori cognitione et affectione; secundum illud Isaiae li, gaudium et laetitia invenietur in ea, gratiarum actio et vox laudis. In statu autem praesentis vitae, non possumus divinam veritatem in seipsa intueri, sed oportet quod radius divinae veritatis nobis illucescat sub aliquibus sensibilibus figuris, sicut Dionysius dicit, I cap. Cael. Hier., diversimode tamen, secundum diversum statum cognitionis humanae. In veteri enim lege neque ipsa divina veritas in seipsa manifesta erat, neque etiam adhuc propalata erat via ad hoc perveniendi, sicut apostolus dicit, ad Heb. IX. Et ideo oportebat exteriorem cultum veteris legis non solum esse figurativum futurae veritatis manifestandae in patria; sed etiam esse figurativum Christi, qui est via ducens ad illam patriae veritatem. Sed in statu novae legis, haec via iam est revelata. Unde hanc praefigurari non oportet sicut futuram, sed commemorari oportet per modum praeteriti vel praesentis, sed solum oportet praefigurari futuram veritatem gloriae nondum revelatam. Et hoc est quod apostolus dicit, ad Heb. X, umbram habet lex futurorum bonorum, non ipsam imaginem rerum, umbra enim minus est quam imago; tanquam imago pertineat ad novam legem, umbra vero ad veterem. I answer that, As stated above (1; 99, A3,4), the ceremonial precepts are those which refer to the worship of God. Now the Divine worship is twofold: internal, and external. For since man is composed of soul and body, each of these should be applied to the worship of God; the soul by an interior worship; the body by an outward worship: hence it is written (Psalm 83:3): "My heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the living God." And as the body is ordained to God through the soul, so the outward worship is ordained to the internal worship. Now interior worship consists in the soul being united to God by the intellect and affections. Wherefore according to the various ways in which the intellect and affections of the man who worships God are rightly united to God, his external actions are applied in various ways to the Divine worship. For in the state of future bliss, the human intellect will gaze on the Divine Truth in Itself. Wherefore the external worship will not consist in anything figurative, but solely in the praise of God, proceeding from the inward knowledge and affection, according to Isaiah 51:3: "Joy and gladness shall be found therein, thanksgiving and the voice of praise." But in the present state of life, we are unable to gaze on the Divine Truth in Itself, and we need the ray of Divine light to shine upon us under the form of certain sensible figures, as Dionysius states (Coel. Hier. i); in various ways, however, according to the various states of human knowledge. For under the Old Law, neither was the Divine Truth manifest in Itself, nor was the way leading to that manifestation as yet opened out, as the Apostle declares (Hebrews 9:8). Hence the external worship of the Old Law needed to be figurative not only of the future truth to be manifested in our heavenly country, but also of Christ, Who is the way leading to that heavenly manifestation. But under the New Law this way is already revealed: and therefore it needs no longer to be foreshadowed as something future, but to be brought to our minds as something past or present: and the truth of the glory to come, which is not yet revealed, alone needs to be foreshadowed. This is what the Apostle says (Hebrews 11:1): "The Law has [Vulgate: 'having'] a shadow of the good things to come, not the very image of the things": for a shadow is less than an image; so that the image belongs to the New Law, but the shadow to the Old.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod divina non sunt revelanda hominibus nisi secundum eorum capacitatem, alioquin daretur eis praecipitii materia, dum contemnerent quae capere non possent. Et ideo utilius fuit ut sub quodam figurarum velamine divina mysteria rudi populo traderentur, ut sic saltem ea implicite cognoscerent, dum illis figuris deservirent ad honorem Dei. Reply to Objection 1. The things of God are not to be revealed to man except in proportion to his capacity: else he would be in danger of downfall, were he to despise what he cannot grasp. Hence it was more beneficial that the Divine mysteries should be revealed to uncultured people under a veil of figures, that thus they might know them at least implicitly by using those figures to the honor of God.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, sicut poetica non capiuntur a ratione humana propter defectum veritatis qui est in eis, ita etiam ratio humana perfecte capere non potest divina propter excedentem ipsorum veritatem. Et ideo utrobique opus est repraesentatione per sensibiles figuras. Reply to Objection 2. Just as human reason fails to grasp poetical expressions on account of their being lacking in truth, so does it fail to grasp Divine things perfectly, on account of the sublimity of the truth they contain: and therefore in both cases there is need of signs by means of sensible figures.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod Augustinus ibi loquitur de cultu interiore; ad quem tamen ordinari oportet exteriorem cultum, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 3. Augustine is speaking there of internal worship; to which, however, external worship should be ordained, as stated above.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 2 ad 4 Et similiter dicendum est ad quartum, quia per Christum homines plenius ad spiritualem Dei cultum sunt introducti. The same answer applies to the Fourth Objection: because men were taught by Him to practice more perfectly the spiritual worship of God.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod non debuerint esse multa caeremonialia praecepta. Ea enim quae sunt ad finem, debent esse fini proportionata. Sed caeremonialia praecepta, sicut dictum est, ordinantur ad cultum Dei et in figuram Christi. Est autem unus Deus, a quo omnia; et unus dominus Iesus Christus, per quem omnia, ut dicitur I ad Cor. VIII. Ergo caeremonialia non debuerunt multiplicari. Objection 1. It would seem that there should not have been many ceremonial precepts. For those things which conduce to an end should be proportionate to that end. But the ceremonial precepts, as stated above (1,2), are ordained to the worship of God, and to the foreshadowing of Christ. Now "there is but one God, of Whom are all things . . . and one Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom are all things" (1 Corinthians 8:6). Therefore there should not have been many ceremonial precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, multitudo caeremonialium praeceptorum transgressionis erat occasio; secundum illud quod dicit Petrus, Act. XV, quid tentatis Deum, imponere iugum super cervicem discipulorum, quod neque nos, neque patres nostri, portare potuimus? Sed transgressio divinorum praeceptorum contrariatur humanae saluti. Cum igitur lex omnis debeat saluti congruere hominum, ut Isidorus dicit, videtur quod non debuerint multa praecepta caeremonialia dari. Objection 2. Further, the great number of the ceremonial precepts was an occasion of transgression, according to the words of Peter (Acts 15:10): "Why tempt you God, to put a yoke upon the necks of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear?" Now the transgression of the Divine precepts is an obstacle to man's salvation. Since, therefore, every law should conduce to man's salvation, as Isidore says (Etym. v, 3), it seems that the ceremonial precepts should not have been given in great number.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, praecepta caeremonialia pertinebant ad cultum Dei exteriorem et corporalem, ut dictum est. Sed huiusmodi cultum corporalem lex debebat diminuere, quia ordinabat ad Christum, qui docuit homines Deum colere in spiritu et veritate, ut habetur Ioan. IV. Non ergo debuerunt multa praecepta caeremonialia dari. Objection 3. Further, the ceremonial precepts referred to the outward and bodily worship of God, as stated above (Article 2). But the Law should have lessened this bodily worship: since it directed men to Christ, Who taught them to worship God "in spirit and in truth," as stated in John 4:23. Therefore there should not have been many ceremonial precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Osee VIII, scribam eis multiplices leges intus; et Iob XI, ut ostenderet tibi secreta sapientiae, quod multiplex sit lex eius. On the contrary, (Hosea 8:12): "I shall write to them [Vulgate: 'him'] My manifold laws"; and (Job 11:6): "That He might show thee the secrets of His wisdom, and that His Law is manifold."
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, omnis lex alicui populo datur. In populo autem duo genera hominum continentur, quidam proni ad malum, qui sunt per praecepta legis coercendi, ut supra dictum est; quidam habentes inclinationem ad bonum, vel ex natura vel ex consuetudine, vel magis ex gratia; et tales sunt per legis praeceptum instruendi et in melius promovendi. Quantum igitur ad utrumque genus hominum, expediebat praecepta caeremonialia in veteri lege multiplicari. Erant enim in illo populo aliqui ad idololatriam proni, et ideo necesse erat ut ab idololatriae cultu per praecepta caeremonialia revocarentur ad cultum Dei. Et quia multipliciter homines idololatriae deserviebant, oportebat e contrario multa institui ad singula reprimenda, et iterum multa talibus imponi, ut, quasi oneratis ex his quae ad cultum Dei impenderent, non vacaret idololatriae deservire. Ex parte vero eorum qui erant prompti ad bonum, etiam necessaria fuit multiplicatio caeremonialium praeceptorum. Tum quia per hoc diversimode mens eorum referebatur in Deum, et magis assidue. Tum etiam quia mysterium Christi, quod per huiusmodi caeremonialia figurabatur, multiplices utilitates attulit mundo, et multa circa ipsum consideranda erant, quae oportuit per diversa caeremonialia figurari. I answer that, As stated above (Question 96, Article 1), every law is given to a people. Now a people contains two kinds of men: some, prone to evil, who have to be coerced by the precepts of the law, as stated above (Question 95, Article 1); some, inclined to good, either from nature or from custom, or rather from grace; and the like have to be taught and improved by means of the precepts of the law. Accordingly, with regard to both kinds of the law. Accordingly, with regard to both kinds of men it was expedient that the Old Law should contain many ceremonial precepts. For in that people there were many prone to idolatry; wherefore it was necessary to recall them by means of ceremonial precepts from the worship of idols to the worship of God. And since men served idols in many ways, it was necessary on the other hand to devise many means of repressing every single one: and again, to lay many obligations on such like men, in order that being burdened, as it were, by their duties to the Divine worship, they might have no time for the service of idols. As to those who were inclined to good, it was again necessary that there should be many ceremonial precepts; both because thus their mind turned to God in many ways, and more continually; and because the mystery of Christ, which was foreshadowed by these ceremonial precepts, brought many boons to the world, and afforded men many considerations, which needed to be signified by various ceremonies.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, quando id quod ordinatur ad finem, est sufficiens ad ducendum in finem, tunc sufficit unum ad unum finem, sicut una medicina, si sit efficax, sufficit quandoque ad sanitatem inducendam, et tunc non oportet multiplicari medicinam. Sed propter debilitatem et imperfectionem eius quod est ad finem, oportet eam multiplicari, sicut multa remedia adhibentur infirmo, quando unum non sufficit ad sanandum. Caeremoniae autem veteris legis invalidae et imperfectae erant et ad repraesentandum Christi mysterium, quod est superexcellens; et ad subiugandum mentes hominum Deo. Unde apostolus dicit, ad Heb. VII, reprobatio fit praecedentis mandati, propter infirmitatem et inutilitatem, nihil enim ad perfectum adduxit lex. Et ideo oportuit huiusmodi caeremonias multiplicari. Reply to Objection 1. When that which conduces to an end is sufficient to conduce thereto, then one such thing suffices for one end: thus one remedy, if it be efficacious, suffices sometimes to restore men to health, and then the remedy needs not to be repeated. But when that which conduces to an end is weak and imperfect, it needs to be multiplied: thus many remedies are given to a sick man, when one is not enough to heal him. Now the ceremonies of the Old Law were weak and imperfect, both for representing the mystery of Christ, on account of its surpassing excellence; and for subjugating men's minds to God. Hence the Apostle says (Hebrews 7:18-19): "There is a setting aside of the former commandment because of the weakness and unprofitableness thereof, for the law brought nothing to perfection." Consequently these ceremonies needed to be in great number.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod sapientis legislatoris est minores transgressiones permittere, ut maiores caveantur. Et ideo, ut caveretur transgressio idololatriae, et superbiae quae in Iudaeorum cordibus nasceretur si omnia praecepta legis implerent, non propter hoc praetermisit Deus multa caeremonialia praecepta tradere, quia de facili sumebant ex hoc transgrediendi occasionem. Reply to Objection 2. A wise lawgiver should suffer lesser transgressions, that the greater may be avoided. And therefore, in order to avoid the sin of idolatry, and the pride which would arise in the hearts of the Jews, were they to fulfil all the precepts of the Law, the fact that they would in consequence find many occasions of disobedience did not prevent God from giving them many ceremonial precepts.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod vetus lex in multis diminuit corporalem cultum. Propter quod statuit quod non in omni loco sacrificia offerrentur, neque a quibuslibet. Et multa huiusmodi statuit ad diminutionem exterioris cultus; sicut etiam Rabbi Moyses Aegyptius dicit. Oportebat tamen non ita attenuare corporalem cultum Dei, ut homines ad cultum Daemonum declinarent. Reply to Objection 3. The Old Law lessened bodily worship in many ways. Thus it forbade sacrifices to be offered in every place and by any person. Many such like things did it enact for the lessening of bodily worship; as Rabbi Moses, the Egyptian testifies (Doct. Perplex. iii). Nevertheless it behooved not to attenuate the bodily worship of God so much as to allow men to fall away into the worship of idols.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod caeremoniae veteris legis inconvenienter dividantur in sacrificia, sacra, sacramenta et observantias. Caeremoniae enim veteris legis figurabant Christum. Sed hoc solum fiebat per sacrificia, per quae figurabatur sacrificium quo Christus se obtulit oblationem et hostiam Deo, ut dicitur ad Ephes. V. Ergo sola sacrificia erant caeremonialia. Objection 1. It would seem that the ceremonies of the Old Law are unsuitably divided into "sacrifices, sacred things, sacraments, and observances." For the ceremonies of the Old Law foreshadowed Christ. But this was done only by the sacrifices, which foreshadowed the sacrifice in which Christ "delivered Himself an oblation and a sacrifice to God" (Ephesians 5:2). Therefore none but the sacrifices were ceremonies.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, vetus lex ordinabatur ad novam. Sed in nova lege ipsum sacrificium est sacramentum altaris. Ergo in veteri lege non debuerunt distingui sacramenta contra sacrificia. Objection 2. Further, the Old Law was ordained to the New. But in the New Law the sacrifice is the Sacrament of the Altar. Therefore in the Old Law there should be no distinction between "sacrifices" and "sacraments."
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, sacrum dicitur quod est Deo dicatum, secundum quem modum tabernaculum et vasa eius sacrificari dicebantur. Sed omnia caeremonialia erant ordinata ad cultum Dei, ut dictum est. Ergo caeremonialia omnia sacra erant. Non ergo una pars caeremonialium debet sacra nominari. Objection 3. Further, a "sacred thing" is something dedicated to God: in which sense the tabernacle and its vessels were said to be consecrated. But all the ceremonial precepts were ordained to the worship of God, as stated above (Article 1). Therefore all ceremonies were sacred things. Therefore "sacred things" should not be taken as a part of the ceremonies.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 arg. 4 Praeterea, observantiae ab observando dicuntur. Sed omnia praecepta legis observari debebant, dicitur enim Deut. VIII, observa et cave ne quando obliviscaris domini Dei tui, et negligas mandata eius atque iudicia et caeremonias. Non ergo observantiae debent poni una pars caeremonialium. Objection 4. Further, "observances" are so called from having to be observed. But all the precepts of the Law had to be observed: for it is written (Deuteronomy 8:11): "Observe [Douay: 'Take heed'] and beware lest at any time thou forget the Lord thy God, and neglect His commandments and judgments and ceremonies." Therefore the "observances" should not be considered as a part of the ceremonies.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 arg. 5 Praeterea, solemnitates inter caeremonialia computantur, cum sint in umbram futuri, ut patet ad Colos. II. Similiter etiam oblationes et munera; ut patet per apostolum, ad Heb. IX. Quae tamen sub nullo horum contineri videntur. Ergo inconveniens est praedicta distinctio caeremonialium. Objection 5. Further, the solemn festivals are reckoned as part of the ceremonial: since they were a shadow of things to come (Colossians 2:16-17): and the same may be said of the oblations and gifts, as appears from the words of the Apostle (Hebrews 9:9): and yet these do not seem to be inclined in any of those mentioned above. Therefore the above division of ceremonies is unsuitable.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est quod in veteri lege singula praedicta caeremoniae vocantur. Sacrificia enim dicuntur caeremoniae Num. XV, offerat vitulum et sacrificia eius ac libamenta, ut caeremoniae eius postulant. De sacramento etiam ordinis dicitur Levit. VII, haec est unctio Aaron et filiorum eius in caeremoniis. De sacris etiam dicitur Exod. XXXVIII, haec sunt instrumenta tabernaculi testimonii in caeremoniis Levitarum. De observantiis etiam dicitur III Reg. IX, si aversi fueritis, non sequentes me, nec observantes caeremonias quas proposui vobis. On the contrary, In the Old Law each of the above is called a ceremony. For the sacrifices are called ceremonies (Numbers 15:24): "They shall offer a calf . . . and the sacrifices and libations thereof, as the ceremonies require." Of the sacrament of Order it is written (Leviticus 7:35): "This is the anointing of Aaron and his sons in the ceremonies." Of sacred things also it is written (Exodus 38:21): "These are the instruments of the tabernacle of the testimony . . . in the ceremonies of the Levites." And again of the observances it is written (1 Kings 9:6): "If you . . . shall turn away from following Me, and will not observe [Douay: 'keep'] My . . . ceremonies which I have set before you."
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, caeremonialia praecepta ordinantur ad cultum Dei. In quo quidem cultu considerari possunt et ipse cultus, et colentes, et instrumenta colendi. Ipse autem cultus specialiter consistit in sacrificiis, quae in Dei reverentiam offeruntur. Instrumenta autem colendi pertinent ad sacra, sicut est tabernaculum, et vasa, et alia huiusmodi. Ex parte autem colentium duo possunt considerari. Scilicet et eorum institutio ad cultum divinum, quod fit per quandam consecrationem vel populi, vel ministrorum, et ad hoc pertinent sacramenta. Et iterum eorum singularis conversatio, per quam distinguuntur ab his qui Deum non colunt, et ad hoc pertinent observantiae, puta in cibis et vestimentis et aliis huiusmodi. I answer that, As stated above (1,2), the ceremonial precepts are ordained to the Divine worship. Now in this worship we may consider the worship itself, the worshippers, and the instruments of worship. The worship consists specially in "sacrifices," which are offered up in honor of God. The instruments of worship refer to the "sacred things," such as the tabernacle, the vessels and so forth. With regard to the worshippers two points may be considered. The first point is their preparation for Divine worship, which is effected by a sort of consecration either of the people or of the ministers; and to this the "sacraments" refer. The second point is their particular mode of life, whereby they are distinguished from those who do not worship God: and to this pertain the "observances," for instance, in matters of food, clothing, and so forth.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod sacrificia oportebat offerri et in aliquibus locis, et per aliquos homines, et totum hoc ad cultum Dei pertinet. Unde sicut per sacrificia significatur Christus immolatus, ita etiam per sacramenta et sacra illorum figurabantur sacramenta et sacra novae legis; et per eorum observantias figurabatur conversatio populi novae legis. Quae omnia ad Christum pertinent. Reply to Objection 1. It was necessary for the sacrifices to be offered both in some certain place and by some certain men: and all this pertained to the worship of God. Wherefore just as their sacrifices signified Christ the victim, so too their sacraments and sacred things of the New Law; while their observances foreshadowed the mode of life of the people under the New Law: all of which things pertain to Christ.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod sacrificium novae legis, idest Eucharistia, continet ipsum Christum, qui est sanctificationis auctor, sanctificavit enim per suum sanguinem populum, ut dicitur ad Heb. ult. Et ideo hoc sacrificium etiam est sacramentum. Sed sacrificia veteris legis non continebant Christum, sed ipsum figurabant, et ideo non dicuntur sacramenta. Sed ad hoc designandum seorsum erant quaedam sacramenta in veteri lege, quae erant figurae futurae consecrationis. Quamvis etiam quibusdam consecrationibus quaedam sacrificia adiungerentur. Reply to Objection 2. The sacrifice of the New Law, viz. the Eucharist, contains Christ Himself, the Author of our Sanctification: for He sanctified "the people by His own blood" (Hebrews 13:12). Hence this Sacrifice is also a sacrament. But the sacrifices of the Old Law did not contain Christ, but foreshadowed Him; hence they are not called sacraments. In order to signify this there were certain sacraments apart from the sacrifices of the Old Law, which sacraments were figures of the sanctification to come. Nevertheless to certain consecrations certain sacrifices were united.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod etiam sacrificia et sacramenta erant sacra. Sed quaedam erant quae erant sacra, utpote ad cultum Dei dicata, nec tamen erant sacrificia nec sacramenta, et ideo retinebant sibi commune nomen sacrorum. Reply to Objection 3. The sacrifices and sacraments were of course sacred things. But certain things were sacred, through being dedicated to the Divine worship, and yet were not sacrifices or sacraments: wherefore they retained the common designation of sacred things.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod ea quae pertinebant ad conversationem populi colentis Deum, retinebant sibi commune nomen observantiarum, inquantum a praemissis deficiebant. Non enim dicebantur sacra, quia non habebant immediatum respectum ad cultum Dei, sicut tabernaculum et vasa eius. Sed per quandam consequentiam erant caeremonialia, inquantum pertinebant ad quandam idoneitatem populi colentis Deum. Reply to Objection 4. Those things which pertained to the mode of life of the people who worshipped God, retained the common designation of observances, in so far as they fell short of the above. For they were not called sacred things, because they had no immediate connection with the worship of God, such as the tabernacle and its vessels had. But by a sort of consequence they were matters of ceremony, in so far as they affected the fitness of the people who worshipped God.
Iª-IIae q. 101 a. 4 ad 5 Ad quintum dicendum quod, sicut sacrificia offerebantur in determinato loco ita etiam offerebantur in determinatis temporibus, unde etiam solemnitates inter sacra computari videntur. Oblationes autem et munera computantur cum sacrificiis, quia Deo offerebantur, unde apostolus dicit, ad Heb. V, omnis pontifex ex hominibus assumptus, pro hominibus constituitur in his quae sunt ad Deum, ut offerat dona et sacrificia. Reply to Objection 5. Just as the sacrifices were offered in a fixed place, so were they offered at fixed times: for which reason the solemn festivals seem to be reckoned among the sacred things. The oblations and gifts are counted together with the sacrifices; hence the Apostle says (Hebrews 5:1): "Every high-priest taken from among men, is ordained for men in things that appertain to God, that he may offer up gifts and sacrifices."

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