Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part I/Q91

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Q90 Q92



Latin English
Iª q. 91 pr. Deinde considerandum est de productione corporis primi hominis. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, de materia ex qua productum est. Secundo, de auctore a quo productum est. Tertio, de dispositione quae ei per productionem est attributa. Quarto, de modo et ordine productionis ipsius.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod corpus primi hominis non sit factum de limo terrae. Maioris enim virtutis est facere aliquid ex nihilo, quam ex aliquo, quia plus distat ab actu non ens quam ens in potentia. Sed cum homo sit dignissima creaturarum inferiorum, decuit ut virtus Dei maxime ostenderetur in productione corporis eius. Ergo non debuit fieri ex limo terrae, sed ex nihilo. Objection 1. It would seem that the body of the first man was not made of the slime of the earth. For it is an act of greater power to make something out of nothing than out of something; because "not being" is farther off from actual existence than "being in potentiality." But since man is the most honorable of God's lower creatures, it was fitting that in the production of man's body, the power of God should be most clearly shown. Therefore it should not have been made of the slime of the earth, but out of nothing.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, corpora caelestia sunt nobiliora terrenis. Sed corpus humanum habet maximam nobilitatem, cum perficiatur a nobilissima forma, quae est anima rationalis. Ergo non debuit fieri de corpore terrestri, sed magis de corpore caelesti. Objection 2. Further, the heavenly bodies are nobler than earthly bodies. But the human body has the greatest nobility; since it is perfected by the noblest form, which is the rational soul. Therefore it should not be made of an earthly body, but of a heavenly body.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, ignis et aer sunt nobiliora corpora quam terra et aqua, quod ex eorum subtilitate apparet. Cum igitur corpus humanum sit dignissimum, magis debuit fieri ex igne et ex aere quam ex limo terrae. Objection 3. Further, fire and air are nobler than earth and water, as is clear from their subtlety. Therefore, since the human body is most noble, it should rather have been made of fire and air than of the slime of the earth.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 arg. 4 Praeterea, corpus humanum est compositum ex quatuor elementis. Non ergo est factum ex limo terrae, sed ex omnibus elementis. Objection 4. Further, the human body is composed of the four elements. Therefore it was not made of the slime of the earth, but of the four elements.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Gen. II, formavit Deus hominem de limo terrae. On the contrary, It is written (Genesis 2:7): "God made man of the slime of the earth."
Iª q. 91 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, cum Deus perfectus sit, operibus suis perfectionem dedit secundum eorum modum; secundum illud Deut. XXXII, Dei perfecta sunt opera. Ipse autem simpliciter perfectus est, ex hoc quod omnia in se praehabet, non per modum compositionis, sed simpliciter et unite, ut Dionysius dicit, eo modo quo diversi effectus praeexistunt in causa, secundum unam eius essentiam. Ista autem perfectio ad Angelos quidem derivatur, secundum quod omnia sunt in eorum cognitione quae sunt a Deo in natura producta, per formas diversas. Ad hominem vero derivatur inferiori modo huiusmodi perfectio. Non enim in sua cognitione naturali habet omnium naturalium notitiam; sed est ex rebus omnibus quodammodo compositus, dum de genere spiritualium substantiarum habet in se animam rationalem, de similitudine vero caelestium corporum habet elongationem a contrariis per maximam aequalitatem complexionis, elementa vero secundum substantiam. Ita tamen quod superiora elementa praedominantur in eo secundum virtutem, scilicet ignis et aer, quia vita praecipue consistit in calido, quod est ignis, et humido, quod est aeris. Inferiora vero elementa abundant in eo secundum substantiam, aliter enim non posset esse mixtionis aequalitas, nisi inferiora elementa, quae sunt minoris virtutis, secundum quantitatem in homine abundarent. Et ideo dicitur corpus hominis de limo terrae formatum, quia limus dicitur terra aquae permixta. Et propter hoc homo dicitur minor mundus, quia omnes creaturae mundi quodammodo inveniuntur in eo. I answer that, As God is perfect in His works, He bestowed perfection on all of them according to their capacity: "God's works are perfect" (Deuteronomy 32:4). He Himself is simply perfect by the fact that "all things are pre-contained" in Him, not as component parts, but as "united in one simple whole," as Dionysius says (Div. Nom. v); in the same way as various effects pre-exist in their cause, according to its one virtue. This perfection is bestowed on the angels, inasmuch as all things which are produced by God in nature through various forms come under their knowledge. But on man this perfection is bestowed in an inferior way. For he does not possess a natural knowledge of all natural things, but is in a manner composed of all things, since he has in himself a rational soul of the genus of spiritual substances, and in likeness to the heavenly bodies he is removed from contraries by an equable temperament. As to the elements, he has them in their very substance, yet in such a way that the higher elements, fire and air, predominate in him by their power; for life is mostly found where there is heat, which is from fire; and where there is humor, which is of the air. But the inferior elements abound in man by their substance; otherwise the mingling of elements would not be evenly balanced, unless the inferior elements, which have the less power, predominated in quantity. Therefore the body of man is said to have been formed from the slime of the earth; because earth and water mingled are called slime, and for this reason man is called 'a little world,' because all creatures of the world are in a way to be found in him.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod virtus Dei creantis manifestata est in corpore hominis, dum eius materia est per creationem producta. Oportuit autem ut ex materia quatuor elementorum fieret corpus humanum, ut homo haberet convenientiam cum inferioribus corporibus, quasi medium quoddam existens inter spirituales et corporales substantias. Reply to Objection 1. The power of the Divine Creator was manifested in man's body when its matter was produced by creation. But it was fitting that the human body should be made of the four elements, that man might have something in common with the inferior bodies, as being something between spiritual and corporeal substances.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, quamvis corpus caeleste sit simpliciter nobilius terrestri corpore, tamen quantum ad actus animae rationalis, est minus conveniens. Nam anima rationalis accipit notitiam veritatis quodammodo per sensus; quorum organa formari non possunt ex corpore caelesti, cum sit impassibile. Nec est verum quod quidam dicunt aliquid de quinta essentia materialiter ad compositionem humani corporis advenire, ponentes animam uniri corpori mediante quadam luce. Primo enim, falsum est quod dicunt, lucem esse corpus. Secundo vero, impossibile est aliquid de quinta essentia vel a corpore caelesti dividi, vel elementis permisceri, propter caelestis corporis impassibilitatem. Unde non venit in compositionem mixtorum corporum, nisi secundum suae virtutis effectum. Reply to Objection 2. Although the heavenly body is in itself nobler than the earthly body, yet for the acts of the rational soul the heavenly body is less adapted. For the rational soul receives the knowledge of truth in a certain way through the senses, the organs of which cannot be formed of a heavenly body which is impassible. Nor is it true that something of the fifth essence enters materially into the composition of the human body, as some say, who suppose that the soul is united to the body by means of light. For, first of all, what they say is false--that light is a body. Secondly, it is impossible for something to be taken from the fifth essence, or from a heavenly body, and to be mingled with the elements, since a heavenly body is impassible; wherefore it does not enter into the composition of mixed bodies, except as in the effects of its power.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod, si ignis et aer, quae sunt maioris virtutis in agendo, etiam secundum quantitatem in compositione humani corporis abundarent, omnino ad se traherent alia, et non posset fieri aequalitas commixtionis, quae est necessaria in compositione hominis ad bonitatem sensus tactus, qui est fundamentum sensuum aliorum. Oportet enim organum cuiuslibet sensus non habere in actu contraria quorum sensus est perceptivus, sed in potentia tantum. Vel ita quod omnino careat toto genere contrariorum, sicut pupilla caret colore, ut sit in potentia ad omnes colores, quod in organo tactus non erat possibile, cum sit compositum ex elementis, quorum qualitates percipit tactus. Vel ita quod organum sit medium inter contraria, ut necesse est in tactu accidere, medium enim est quodammodo in potentia ad extrema. Reply to Objection 3. If fire and air, whose action is of greater power, predominated also in quantity in the human body, they would entirely draw the rest into themselves, and there would be no equality in the mingling, such as is required in the composition of man, for the sense of touch, which is the foundation of the other senses. For the organ of any particular sense must not actually have the contraries of which that sense has the perception, but only potentially; either in such a way that it is entirely void of the whole "genus" of such contraries--thus, for instance, the pupil of the eye is without color, so as to be in potentiality as regards all colors; which is not possible in the organ of touch, since it is composed of the very elements, the qualities of which are perceived by that sense--or so that the organ is a medium between two contraries, as much needs be the case with regard to touch; for the medium is in potentiality to the extremes.
Iª q. 91 a. 1 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod in limo terrae est terra, et aqua conglutinans partes terrae. De aliis autem elementis Scriptura mentionem non fecit, tum quia minus abundant secundum quantitatem in corpore hominis, ut dictum est; tum etiam quia in tota rerum productione, de igne et aere, quae sensu non percipiuntur a rudibus mentionem non fecit Scriptura, quae rudi populo tradebatur. Reply to Objection 4. In the slime of the earth are earth, and water binding the earth together. Of the other elements, Scripture makes no mention, because they are less in quantity in the human body, as we have said; and because also in the account of the Creation no mention is made of fire and air, which are not perceived by senses of uncultured men such as those to whom the Scripture was immediately addressed.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod corpus humanum non sit immediate a Deo productum. Dicit enim Augustinus, in III de Trin., quod corporalia disponuntur a Deo per angelicam creaturam. Sed corpus humanum formatum fuit ex materia corporali, ut dictum est. Ergo debuit produci mediantibus Angelis, et non immediate a Deo. Objection 1. It would seem that the human body was not produced by God immediately. For Augustine says (De Trin. iii, 4), that "corporeal things are disposed by God through the angels." But the human body was made of corporeal matter, as stated above (1). Therefore it was produced by the instrumentality of the angels, and not immediately by God.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, quod fieri potest virtute creata, non est necessarium quod immediate producatur a Deo. Sed corpus humanum produci potest per virtutem creatam caelestis corporis, nam et quaedam animalia ex putrefactione generantur per virtutem activam corporis caelestis; et Albumasar dicit quod in locis in quibus nimis abundat calor aut frigus, homines non generantur, sed in locis temperatis tantum. Ergo non oportuit quod immediate corpus humanum formaretur a Deo. Objection 2. Further, whatever can be made by a created power, is not necessarily produced immediately by God. But the human body can be produced by the created power of a heavenly body; for even certain animals are produced from putrefaction by the active power of a heavenly body; and Albumazar says that man is not generated where heat and cold are extreme, but only in temperate regions. Therefore the human body was not necessarily produced immediately by God.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, nihil fit ex materia corporali nisi per aliquam materiae transmutationem. Sed omnis transmutatio corporalis causatur ex motu caelestis corporis, qui est primus motuum. Cum igitur corpus humanum sit productum ex materia corporali, videtur quod ad eius formationem aliquid operatum fuerit corpus caeleste. Objection 3. Further, nothing is made of corporeal matter except by some material change. But all corporeal change is caused by a movement of a heavenly body, which is the first movement. Therefore, since the human body was produced from corporeal matter, it seems that a heavenly body had part in its production.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 arg. 4 Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, super Gen. ad Litt., quod homo factus est secundum corpus, in operibus sex dierum, secundum causales rationes quas Deus inseruit creaturae corporali; postmodum vero fuit formatum in actu. Sed quod praeexistit in corporali creatura secundum causales rationes, per aliquam virtutem corpoream produci potest. Ergo corpus humanum productum est aliqua virtute creata, et non immediate a Deo. Objection 4. Further, Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. vii, 24) that man's body was made during the work of the six days, according to the causal virtues which God inserted in corporeal creatures; and that afterwards it was actually produced. But what pre-exists in the corporeal creature by reason of causal virtues can be produced by some corporeal body. Therefore the human body was produced by some created power, and not immediately by God.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Eccli. XVII, Deus de terra creavit hominem. On the contrary, It is written (Sirach 17:1): "God created man out of the earth."
Iª q. 91 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod prima formatio humani corporis non potuit esse per aliquam virtutem creatam, sed immediate a Deo. Posuerunt siquidem aliqui formas quae sunt in materia corporali, a quibusdam formis immaterialibus derivari. Sed hanc opinionem repellit philosophus, in VII Metaphys., per hoc quod formis non competit per se fieri, sed composito, ut supra expositum est; et quia oportet agens esse simile facto non convenit quod forma pura, quae est sine materia, producat formam quae est in materia, quae non fit nisi per hoc quod compositum fit. Et ideo oportet quod forma quae est in materia, sit causa formae quae est in materia, secundum quod compositum a composito generatur. Deus autem, quamvis omnino sit immaterialis, tamen solus est qui sua virtute materiam producere potest creando. Unde ipsius solius est formam producere in materia absque adminiculo praecedentis formae materialis. Et propter hoc, Angeli non possunt transmutare corpora ad formam aliquam, nisi adhibitis seminibus quibusdam, ut Augustinus dicit in III de Trin. Quia igitur corpus humanum nunquam formatum fuerat, cuius virtute per viam generationis aliud simile in specie formaretur, necesse fuit quod primum corpus hominis immediate formaretur a Deo. I answer that, The first formation of the human body could not be by the instrumentality of any created power, but was immediately from God. Some, indeed, supposed that the forms which are in corporeal matter are derived from some immaterial forms; but the Philosopher refutes this opinion (Metaph. vii), for the reason that forms cannot be made in themselves, but only in the composite, as we have explained (65, 4); and because the agent must be like its effect, it is not fitting that a pure form, not existing in matter, should produce a form which is in matter, and which form is only made by the fact that the composite is made. So a form which is in matter can only be the cause of another form that is in matter, according as composite is made by composite. Now God, though He is absolutely immaterial, can alone by His own power produce matter by creation: wherefore He alone can produce a form in matter, without the aid of any preceding material form. For this reason the angels cannot transform a body except by making use of something in the nature of a seed, as Augustine says (De Trin. iii, 19). Therefore as no pre-existing body has been formed whereby another body of the same species could be generated, the first human body was of necessity made immediately by God.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, etsi Angeli aliquod ministerium Deo exhibeant in his quae circa corpora operatur; aliqua tamen Deus in creatura corporea facit, quae nullo modo Angeli facere possunt; sicut quod suscitat mortuos, et illuminat caecos. Secundum quam virtutem etiam corpus primi hominis de limo terrae formavit. Potuit tamen fieri ut aliquod ministerium in formatione corporis primi hominis Angeli exhiberent; sicut exhibebunt in ultima resurrectione, pulveres colligendo. Reply to Objection 1. Although the angels are the ministers of God, as regards what He does in bodies, yet God does something in bodies beyond the angels' power, as, for instance, raising the dead, or giving sight to the blind: and by this power He formed the body of the first man from the slime of the earth. Nevertheless the angels could act as ministers in the formation of the body of the first man, in the same way as they will do at the last resurrection by collecting the dust.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod animalia perfecta, quae generantur ex semine, non possunt generari per solam virtutem caelestis corporis, ut Avicenna fingit; licet ad eorum generationem naturalem cooperetur virtus caelestis corporis, prout philosophus dicit, in II Physic., quod homo generat hominem ex materia, et sol. Et exinde est quod exigitur locus temperatus ad generationem hominum et aliorum animalium perfectorum. Sufficit autem virtus caelestium corporum ad generandum quaedam animalia imperfectiora ex materia disposita, manifestum est enim quod plura requiruntur ad productionem rei perfectae, quam ad productionem rei imperfectae. Reply to Objection 2. Perfect animals, produced from seed, cannot be made by the sole power of a heavenly body, as Avicenna imagined; although the power of a heavenly body may assist by co-operation in the work of natural generation, as the Philosopher says (Phys. ii, 26), "man and the sun beget man from matter." For this reason, a place of moderate temperature is required for the production of man and other animals. But the power of heavenly bodies suffices for the production of some imperfect animals from properly disposed matter: for it is clear that more conditions are required to produce a perfect than an imperfect thing.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod motus caeli est causa transmutationum naturalium, non tamen transmutationum quae fiunt praeter naturae ordinem, et sola virtute divina, sicut quod mortui resuscitantur, quod caeci illuminantur. Quibus est simile quod homo ex limo terrae formatur. Reply to Objection 3. The movement of the heavens causes natural changes; but not changes that surpass the order of nature, and are caused by the Divine Power alone, as for the dead to be raised to life, or the blind to see: like to which also is the making of man from the slime of the earth.
Iª q. 91 a. 2 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod secundum rationes causales in creaturis dicitur aliquid praeexistere dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum potentiam activam et passivam, ut non solum ex materia praeexistenti fieri possit, sed etiam ut aliqua praeexistens creatura hoc facere possit. Alio modo, secundum potentiam passivam tantum, ut scilicet de materia praeexistenti fieri possit a Deo. Et hoc modo, secundum Augustinum, corpus hominis praeextitit in operibus productis secundum causales rationes. Reply to Objection 4. An effect may be said to pre-exist in the causal virtues of creatures, in two ways. First, both in active and in passive potentiality, so that not only can it be produced out of pre-existing matter, but also that some pre-existing creature can produce it. Secondly, in passive potentiality only; that is, that out of pre-existing matter it can be produced by God. In this sense, according to Augustine, the human body pre-existed in the previous work in their causal virtues.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod corpus hominis non habuerit convenientem dispositionem. Cum enim homo sit nobilissimum animalium, corpus hominis debuit esse dispositum optime ad ea quae sunt propria animalis, scilicet ad sensum et motum. Sed quaedam animalia inveniuntur acutioris sensus quam homo, et velocioris motus; sicut canes melius odorant, et aves velocius moventur. Ergo corpus hominis non est convenienter dispositum. Objection 1. It would seem that the body of man was not given an apt disposition. For since man is the noblest of animals, his body ought to be the best disposed in what is proper to an animal, that is, in sense and movement. But some animals have sharper senses and quicker movement than man; thus dogs have a keener smell, and birds a swifter flight. Therefore man's body was not aptly disposed.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, perfectum est cui nihil deest. Sed plura desunt humano corpori quam corporibus aliorum animalium, quae habent tegumenta et arma naturalia ad sui protectionem, quae homini desunt. Ergo corpus humanum est imperfectissime dispositum. Objection 2. Further, perfect is what lacks nothing. But the human body lacks more than the body of other animals, for these are provided with covering and natural arms of defense, in which man is lacking. Therefore the human body is very imperfectly disposed.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, homo plus distat a plantis quam ab animalibus brutis. Sed plantae habent staturam rectam; animalia autem bruta pronam. Ergo homo non debuit habere staturam rectam. Objection 3. Further, man is more distant from plants than he is from the brutes. But plants are erect in stature, while brutes are prone in stature. Therefore man should not be of erect stature.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Eccle. VII, Deus fecit hominem rectum. On the contrary, It is written (Ecclesiastes 7:30): "God made man right."
Iª q. 91 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod omnes res naturales productae sunt ab arte divina, unde sunt quodammodo artificiata ipsius Dei. Quilibet autem artifex intendit suo operi dispositionem optimam inducere, non simpliciter, sed per comparationem ad finem. Et si talis dispositio habet secum adiunctum aliquem defectum, artifex non curat. Sicut artifex qui facit serram ad secandum, facit eam ex ferro, ut sit idonea ad secandum; nec curat eam facere ex vitro, quae est pulchrior materia, quia talis pulchritudo esset impedimentum finis. Sic igitur Deus unicuique rei naturali dedit optimam dispositionem, non quidem simpliciter, sed secundum ordinem ad proprium finem. Et hoc est quod philosophus dicit, in II Physic., et quia dignius est sic, non tamen simpliciter, sed ad uniuscuiusque substantiam. Finis autem proximus humani corporis est anima rationalis et operationes ipsius, materia enim est propter formam, et instrumenta propter actiones agentis. Dico ergo quod Deus instituit corpus humanum in optima dispositione secundum convenientiam ad talem formam et ad tales operationes. Et si aliquis defectus in dispositione humani corporis esse videtur, considerandum est quod talis defectus sequitur ex necessitate materiae, ad ea quae requiruntur in corpore ut sit debita proportio ipsius ad animam et ad animae operationes. I answer that, All natural things were produced by the Divine art, and so may be called God's works of art. Now every artist intends to give to his work the best disposition; not absolutely the best, but the best as regards the proposed end; and even if this entails some defect, the artist cares not: thus, for instance, when man makes himself a saw for the purpose of cutting, he makes it of iron, which is suitable for the object in view; and he does not prefer to make it of glass, though this be a more beautiful material, because this very beauty would be an obstacle to the end he has in view. Therefore God gave to each natural being the best disposition; not absolutely so, but in the view of its proper end. This is what the Philosopher says (Phys. ii, 7): "And because it is better so, not absolutely, but for each one's substance." Now the proximate end of the human body is the rational soul and its operations; since matter is for the sake of the form, and instruments are for the action of the agent. I say, therefore, that God fashioned the human body in that disposition which was best, as most suited to such a form and to such operations. If defect exists in the disposition of the human body, it is well to observe that such defect arises as a necessary result of the matter, from the conditions required in the body, in order to make it suitably proportioned to the soul and its operations.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod tactus, qui est fundamentum aliorum sensuum, est perfectior in homine quam in aliquo alio animali, et propter hoc oportuit quod homo haberet temperatissimam complexionem inter omnia animalia. Praecedit etiam homo omnia alia animalia, quantum ad vires sensitivas interiores; sicut ex supra dictis apparet. Ex quadam autem necessitate contingit quod, quantum ad aliquos exteriores sensus, homo ab aliis animalibus deficiat. Sicut homo, inter omnia animalia, habet pessimum olfactum. Necessarium enim fuit quod homo, inter omnia animalia, respectu sui corporis haberet maximum cerebrum, tum ut liberius in eo perficerentur operationes interiorum virium sensitivarum, quae sunt necessariae ad intellectus operationem, ut supra dictum est; tum etiam ut frigiditas cerebri temperaret calorem cordis, quem necesse est in homine abundare, ad hoc quod homo sit rectae staturae. Magnitudo autem cerebri, propter eius humiditatem, est impedimentum olfactus, qui requirit siccitatem. Et similiter potest assignari ratio quare quaedam animalia sunt acutioris visus et subtilioris auditus quam homo, propter impedimentum horum sensuum quod necesse est consequi in homine ex perfecta complexionis aequalitate. Et eadem etiam ratio est assignanda de hoc quod quaedam animalia sunt homine velociora, cui excellentiae velocitatis repugnat aequalitas humanae complexionis. Reply to Objection 1. The sense of touch, which is the foundation of the other senses, is more perfect in man than in any other animal; and for this reason man must have the most equable temperament of all animals. Moreover man excels all other animals in the interior sensitive powers, as is clear from what we have said above (78, 4). But by a kind of necessity, man falls short of the other animals in some of the exterior senses; thus of all animals he has the least sense of smell. For man needs the largest brain as compared to the body; both for his greater freedom of action in the interior powers required for the intellectual operations, as we have seen above (84, 7); and in order that the low temperature of the brain may modify the heat of the heart, which has to be considerable in man for him to be able to stand erect. So that size of the brain, by reason of its humidity, is an impediment to the smell, which requires dryness. In the same way, we may suggest a reason why some animals have a keener sight, and a more acute hearing than man; namely, on account of a hindrance to his senses arising necessarily from the perfect equability of his temperament. The same reason suffices to explain why some animals are more rapid in movement than man, since this excellence of speed is inconsistent with the equability of the human temperament.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod cornua et ungulae, quae sunt quorundam animalium arma, et spissitudo corii, et multitudo pilorum aut plumarum, quae sunt tegumenta animalium, attestantur abundantiae terrestris elementi; quae repugnat aequalitati et teneritudini complexionis humanae. Et ideo haec homini non competebant. Sed loco horum habet rationem et manus, quibus potest parare sibi arma et tegumenta et alia vitae necessaria, infinitis modis. Unde et manus, in III de anima, dicitur organum organorum. Et hoc etiam magis competebat rationali naturae, quae est infinitarum conceptionum, ut haberet facultatem infinita instrumenta sibi parandi. Reply to Objection 2. Horns and claws, which are the weapons of some animals, and toughness of hide and quantity of hair or feathers, which are the clothing of animals, are signs of an abundance of the earthly element; which does not agree with the equability and softness of the human temperament. Therefore such things do not suit the nature of man. Instead of these, he has reason and hands whereby he can make himself arms and clothes, and other necessaries of life, of infinite variety. Wherefore the hand is called by Aristotle (De Anima iii, 8), "the organ of organs." Moreover this was more becoming to the rational nature, which is capable of conceiving an infinite number of things, so as to make for itself an infinite number of instruments.
Iª q. 91 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod habere staturam rectam conveniens fuit homini propter quatuor. Primo quidem, quia sensus sunt dati homini non solum ad vitae necessaria procuranda, sicut aliis animalibus; sed etiam ad cognoscendum. Unde, cum cetera animalia non delectentur in sensibilibus nisi per ordinem ad cibos et venerea, solus homo delectatur in ipsa pulchritudine sensibilium secundum seipsam. Et ideo, quia sensus praecipue vigent in facie, alia animalia habent faciem pronam ad terram, quasi ad cibum quaerendum et providendum sibi de victu, homo vero habet faciem erectam, ut per sensus, et praecipue per visum, qui est subtilior et plures differentias rerum ostendit, libere possit ex omni parte sensibilia cognoscere, et caelestia et terrena, ut ex omnibus intelligibilem colligat veritatem. Secundo, ut interiores vires liberius suas operationes habeant, dum cerebrum, in quo quodammodo perficiuntur, non est depressum, sed super omnes partes corporis elevatum. Tertio, quia oporteret quod, si homo haberet pronam staturam, uteretur manibus loco anteriorum pedum. Et sic utilitas manuum ad diversa opera perficienda cessaret. Quarto, quia, si haberet pronam staturam, et uteretur manibus loco anteriorum pedum, oporteret quod cibum caperet ore. Et ita haberet os oblongum, et labia dura et grossa, et linguam etiam duram, ne ab exterioribus laederetur, sicut patet in aliis animalibus. Et talis dispositio omnino impediret locutionem, quae est proprium opus rationis. Et tamen homo staturam rectam habens, maxime distat a plantis. Nam homo habet superius sui, idest caput, versus superius mundi, et inferius sui versus inferius mundi, et ideo est optime dispositus secundum dispositionem totius. Plantae vero habent superius sui versus inferius mundi (nam radices sunt ori proportionales), inferius autem sui versus superius mundi. Animalia vero bruta medio modo, nam superius animalis est pars qua accipit alimentum, inferius autem est pars qua emittit superfluum. Reply to Objection 3. An upright stature was becoming to man for four reasons. First, because the senses are given to man, not only for the purpose of procuring the necessaries of life, which they are bestowed on other animals, but also for the purpose of knowledge. Hence, whereas the other animals take delight in the objects of the senses only as ordered to food and sex, man alone takes pleasure in the beauty of sensible objects for its own sake. Therefore, as the senses are situated chiefly in the face, other animals have the face turned to the ground, as it were for the purpose of seeking food and procuring a livelihood; whereas man has his face erect, in order that by the senses, and chiefly by sight, which is more subtle and penetrates further into the differences of things, he may freely survey the sensible objects around him, both heavenly and earthly, so as to gather intelligible truth from all things. Secondly, for the greater freedom of the acts of the interior powers; the brain, wherein these actions are, in a way, performed, not being low down, but lifted up above other parts of the body. Thirdly, because if man's stature were prone to the ground he would need to use his hands as fore-feet; and thus their utility for other purposes would cease. Fourthly, because if man's stature were prone to the ground, and he used his hands as fore-feet, he would be obliged to take hold of his food with his mouth. Thus he would have a protruding mouth, with thick and hard lips, and also a hard tongue, so as to keep it from being hurt by exterior things; as we see in other animals. Moreover, such an attitude would quite hinder speech, which is reason's proper operation. Nevertheless, though of erect stature, man is far above plants. For man's superior part, his head, is turned towards the superior part of the world, and his inferior part is turned towards the inferior world; and therefore he is perfectly disposed as to the general situation of his body. Plants have the superior part turned towards the lower world, since their roots correspond to the mouth; and their inferior part towards the upper world. But brute animals have a middle disposition, for the superior part of the animal is that by which it takes food, and the inferior part that by which it rids itself of the surplus.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod inconvenienter corporis humani productio in Scriptura describatur. Sicut enim corpus humanum est factum a Deo, ita et alia opera sex dierum. Sed in aliis operibus dicitur, dixit Deus, fiat, et factum est. Ergo similiter dici debuit de hominis productione. Objection 1. It would seem that the production of the human body is not fittingly described in Scripture. For, as the human body was made by God, so also were the other works of the six days. But in the other works it is written, "God said; Let it be made, and it was made." Therefore the same should have been said of man.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, corpus humanum a Deo immediate est factum, ut supra dictum est. Ergo inconvenienter dicitur, faciamus hominem. Objection 2. Further, the human body was made by God immediately, as explained above (2). Therefore it was not fittingly said, "Let us make man."
Iª q. 91 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, forma humani corporis est ipsa anima, quae est spiraculum vitae. Inconvenienter ergo, postquam dixerat, formavit Deus hominem de limo terrae, subiunxit, et inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae. Objection 3. Further, the form of the human body is the soul itself which is the breath of life. Therefore, having said, "God made man of the slime of the earth," he should not have added: "And He breathed into him the breath of life."
Iª q. 91 a. 4 arg. 4 Praeterea, anima, quae est spiraculum vitae, est in toto corpore, et principaliter in corde. Non ergo debuit dicere, quod inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae. Objection 4. Further, the soul, which is the breath of life, is in the whole body, and chiefly in the heart. Therefore it was not fittingly said: "He breathed into his face the breath of life."
Iª q. 91 a. 4 arg. 5 Praeterea, sexus masculinus et femininus pertinent ad corpus, imago vero Dei ad animam. Sed anima, secundum Augustinum, fuit facta ante corpus. Inconvenienter ergo cum dixisset, ad imaginem suam fecit illum, addidit, masculum et feminam creavit eos. Objection 5. Further, the male and female sex belong to the body, while the image of God belongs to the soul. But the soul, according to Augustine (Gen. ad lit. vii, 24), was made before the body. Therefore having said: "To His image He made them," he should not have added, "male and female He created them."
Iª q. 91 a. 4 s. c. In contrarium est auctoritas Scripturae. On the contrary, Is the authority of Scripture.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 ad 1 Respondeo dicendum ad primum quod, sicut Augustinus dicit in VI super Gen. ad Litt., non in hoc praeeminet homo aliis rebus, quod Deus ipse fecit hominem, quasi alia ipse non fecerit; cum scriptum sit, opera manuum tuarum sunt caeli, et alibi, aridam fundaverunt manus eius, sed in hoc quod ad imaginem Dei factus est homo. Utitur tamen Scriptura in productione hominis speciali modo loquendi, ad ostendendum quod alia propter hominem facta sunt. Ea enim quae principaliter intendimus, cum maiori deliberatione et studio consuevimus facere. Reply to Objection 1. As Augustine observes (Gen. ad lit. vi, 12), man surpasses other things, not in the fact that God Himself made man, as though He did not make other things; since it is written (Psalm 101:26), "The work of Thy hands is the heaven," and elsewhere (Psalm 94:5), "His hands laid down the dry land"; but in this, that man is made to God's image. Yet in describing man's production, Scripture uses a special way of speaking, to show that other things were made for man's sake. For we are accustomed to do with more deliberation and care what we have chiefly in mind.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod non est intelligendum Deum Angelis dixisse, faciamus hominem; ut quidam perverse intellexerunt. Sed hoc dicitur ad significandum pluralitatem divinarum personarum, quarum imago expressius invenitur in homine. Reply to Objection 2. We must not imagine that when God said "Let us make man," He spoke to the angels, as some were perverse enough to think. But by these words is signified the plurality of the Divine Person, Whose image is more clearly expressed in man.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod quidam intellexerunt corpus hominis prius tempore formatum, et postmodum Deum formato iam corpori animam infudisse. Sed contra rationem perfectionis primae institutionis rerum est, quod Deus vel corpus sine anima, vel animam sine corpore fecerit, cum utrumque sit pars humanae naturae. Et hoc etiam est magis inconveniens de corpore, quod dependet ex anima, et non e converso. Et ideo ad hoc excludendum, quidam posuerunt quod, cum dicitur, formavit Deus hominem, intelligitur productio corporis simul cum anima; quod autem additur, et inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae, intelligitur de spiritu sancto; sicut et dominus insufflavit in apostolos, dicens, accipite spiritum sanctum, Ioan. XX. Sed haec expositio, ut dicit Augustinus in libro de Civ. Dei, excluditur per verba Scripturae. Nam subditur ad praedicta, et factus est homo in animam viventem, quod apostolus, I ad Cor. XV, non ad vitam spiritualem, sed ad vitam animalem refert. Per spiraculum ergo vitae intelligitur anima, ut sic quod dicitur, inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae, sit quasi expositio eius quod praemiserat; nam anima est corporis forma. Reply to Objection 3. Some have thought that man's body was formed first in priority of time, and that afterwards the soul was infused into the formed body. But it is inconsistent with the perfection of the production of things, that God should have made either the body without the soul, or the soul without the body, since each is a part of human nature. This is especially unfitting as regards the body, for the body depends on the soul, and not the soul on the body. To remove the difficulty some have said that the words, "God made man," must be understood of the production of the body with the soul; and that the subsequent words, "and He breathed into his face the breath of life," should be understood of the Holy Ghost; as the Lord breathed on His Apostles, saying, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost" (John 20:22). But this explanation, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xiii, 24), is excluded by the very words of Scripture. For we read farther on, "And man was made a living soul"; which words the Apostle (1 Corinthians 15:45) refers not to spiritual life, but to animal life. Therefore, by breath of life we must understand the soul, so that the words, "He breathed into his face the breath of life," are a sort of exposition of what goes before; for the soul is the form of the body.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod, quia operationes vitae magis manifestantur in facie hominis, propter sensus ibi existentes; ideo dicit in faciem hominis inspiratum esse spiraculum vitae. Reply to Objection 4. Since vital operations are more clearly seen in man's face, on account of the senses which are there expressed; therefore Scripture says that the breath of life was breathed into man's face.
Iª q. 91 a. 4 ad 5 Ad quintum dicendum quod, secundum Augustinum, omnia opera sex dierum simul sunt facta. Unde animam primi hominis, quam ponit simul factam cum Angelis, non ponit factam ante sextum diem; sed in ipso sexto die ponit esse factam et animam primi hominis in actu, et corpus eius secundum rationes causales. Alii vero doctores ponunt et animam et corpus hominis factum sexto die in actu. Reply to Objection 5. According to Augustine (Gen. ad lit. iv, 34), the works of the six days were done all at one time; wherefore according to him man's soul, which he holds to have been made with the angels, was not made before the sixth day; but on the sixth day both the soul of the first man was made actually, and his body in its causal elements. But other doctors hold that on the sixth day both body and soul of man were actually made.

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