Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part I/Q59

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Q58 Q60



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Iª q. 59 pr. Consequenter considerandum est de his quae pertinent ad voluntatem Angelorum. Et primo considerabimus de ipsa voluntate secundo, de motu eius, qui est amor sive dilectio. Circa primum quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, utrum in Angelis sit voluntas. Secundo, utrum voluntas Angeli sit ipsa natura eorum, vel etiam ipse intellectus eorum. Tertio, utrum in Angelis sit liberum arbitrium. Quarto, utrum in eis sit irascibilis et concupiscibilis.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod in Angelis non sit voluntas. Quia, ut dicit philosophus, in III de anima, voluntas in ratione est. Sed in Angelis non est ratio, sed aliquid superius ratione. Ergo in Angelis non est voluntas, sed aliquid superius voluntate. Objection 1. It would seem that there is no will in the angels. For as the Philosopher says (De Anima iii, text. 42), "The will is in the reason." But there is no reason in the angels, but something higher than reason. Therefore there is no will in the angels, but something higher than the will.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, voluntas sub appetitu continetur, ut patet per philosophum, in III de anima. Sed appetitus est imperfecti, est enim eius quod nondum habetur. Cum igitur in Angelis, maxime in beatis, non sit aliqua imperfectio, videtur quod non sit in eis voluntas. Objection 2. Further, the will is comprised under the appetite, as is evident from the Philosopher (De Anima iii, text. 42). But the appetite argues something imperfect; because it is a desire of something not as yet possessed. Therefore, since there is no imperfection in the angels, especially in the blessed ones, it seems that there is no will in them.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, philosophus dicit, in III de anima, quod voluntas est movens motum, movetur enim ab appetibili intellecto. Sed Angeli sunt immobiles; cum sint incorporei. Ergo in Angelis non est voluntas. Objection 3. Further, the Philosopher says (De Anima ii, text. 54) that the will is a mover which is moved; for it is moved by the appetible object understood. Now the angels are immovable, since they are incorporeal. Therefore there is no will in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, X Lib. de Trin., quod imago Trinitatis invenitur in mente secundum memoriam, intelligentiam et voluntatem. Imago autem Dei invenitur non solum in mente humana, sed etiam in mente angelica; cum etiam mens angelica sit capax Dei. Ergo in Angelis est voluntas. On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. x, 11,12) that the image of the Trinity is found in the soul according to memory, understanding, and will. But God's image is found not only in the soul of man, but also in the angelic mind, since it also is capable of knowing God. Therefore there is will in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod necesse est ponere in Angelis voluntatem. Ad cuius evidentiam, considerandum est quod, cum omnia procedant ex voluntate divina, omnia suo modo per appetitum inclinantur in bonum, sed diversimode. Quaedam enim inclinantur in bonum, per solam naturalem habitudinem, absque cognitione, sicut plantae et corpora inanimata. Et talis inclinatio ad bonum vocatur appetitus naturalis. Quaedam vero ad bonum inclinantur cum aliqua cognitione; non quidem sic quod cognoscant ipsam rationem boni, sed cognoscunt aliquod bonum particulare; sicut sensus, qui cognoscit dulce et album et aliquid huiusmodi. Inclinatio autem hanc cognitionem sequens, dicitur appetitus sensitivus. Quaedam vero inclinantur ad bonum cum cognitione qua cognoscunt ipsam boni rationem; quod est proprium intellectus. Et haec perfectissime inclinantur in bonum; non quidem quasi ab alio solummodo directa in bonum, sicut ea quae cognitione carent; neque in bonum particulariter tantum, sicut ea in quibus est sola sensitiva cognitio; sed quasi inclinata in ipsum universale bonum. Et haec inclinatio dicitur voluntas. Unde cum Angeli per intellectum cognoscant ipsam universalem rationem boni, manifestum est quod in eis sit voluntas. I answer that, We must necessarily place a will in the angels. In evidence thereof, it must be borne in mind that, since all things flow from the Divine will, all things in their own way are inclined by appetite towards good, but in different ways. Some are inclined to good by their natural inclination, without knowledge, as plants and inanimate bodies. Such inclination towards good is called "a natural appetite." Others, again, are inclined towards good, but with some knowledge; not that they know the aspect of goodness, but that they apprehend some particular good; as in the sense, which knows the sweet, the white, and so on. The inclination which follows this apprehension is called "a sensitive appetite." Other things, again, have an inclination towards good, but with a knowledge whereby they perceive the aspect of goodness; this belongs to the intellect. This is most perfectly inclined towards what is good; not, indeed, as if it were merely guided by another towards some particular good only, like things devoid of knowledge, nor towards some particular good only, as things which have only sensitive knowledge, but as inclined towards good in general. Such inclination is termed "will." Accordingly, since the angels by their intellect know the universal aspect of goodness, it is manifest that there is a will in them.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod aliter ratio transcendit sensum, et aliter intellectus rationem. Ratio enim transcendit sensum, secundum diversitatem cognitorum, nam sensus est particularium, ratio vero universalium. Et ideo oportet quod sit alius appetitus tendens in bonum universale, qui debetur rationi; et alius tendens in bonum particulare, qui debetur sensui. Sed intellectus et ratio differunt quantum ad modum cognoscendi, quia scilicet intellectus cognoscit simplici intuitu, ratio vero discurrendo de uno in aliud. Sed tamen ratio per discursum pervenit ad cognoscendum illud, quod intellectus sine discursu cognoscit, scilicet universale. Idem est ergo obiectum quod appetitivae proponitur et ex parte rationis, et ex parte intellectus. Unde in Angelis, qui sunt intellectuales tantum, non est appetitus superior voluntate. Reply to Objection 1. Reason surpasses sense in a different way from that in which intellect surpasses reason. Reason surpasses sense according to the diversity of the objects known; for sense judges of particular objects, while reason judges of universals. Therefore there must be one appetite tending towards good in the abstract, which appetite belongs to reason; and another with a tendency towards particular good, which appetite belongs to sense. But intellect and reason differ as to their manner of knowing; because the intellect knows by simple intuition, while reason knows by a process of discursion from one thing to another. Nevertheless by such discursion reason comes to know what intellect learns without it, namely, the universal. Consequently the object presented to the appetitive faculty on the part of reason and on the part of intellect is the same. Therefore in the angels, who are purely intellectual, there is no appetite higher than the will.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, licet nomen appetitivae partis sit sumptum ab appetendo ea quae non habentur, tamen appetitiva pars non solum ad haec se extendit, sed etiam ad multa alia. Sicut et nomen lapidis sumptum est a laesione pedis, cum tamen lapidi non hoc solum conveniat. Similiter irascibilis potentia denominatur ab ira; cum tamen in ea sint plures aliae passiones, ut spes et audacia et huiusmodi. Reply to Objection 2. Although the name of the appetitive part is derived from seeking things not yet possessed, yet the appetitive part reaches out not to these things only, but also to many other things; thus the name of a stone [lapis] is derived from injuring the foot [laesione pedis], though not this alone belongs to a stone. In the same way the irascible faculty is so denominated from anger [ira]; though at the same time there are several other passions in it, as hope, daring, and the rest.
Iª q. 59 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod voluntas dicitur movens motum, secundum quod velle est motus quidam, et intelligere; cuiusmodi motum nihil prohibet in Angelis esse, quia talis motus est actus perfecti, ut dicitur in III de anima. Reply to Objection 3. The will is called a mover which is moved, according as to will and to understand are termed movements of a kind; and there is nothing to prevent movement of this kind from existing in the angels, since such movement is the act of a perfect agent, as stated in De Anima iii, text. 28.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod in Angelis non differat voluntas ab intellectu et natura. Angelus enim est simplicior quam corpus naturale. Sed corpus naturale per suam formam inclinatur in suum finem, qui est eius bonum. Ergo multo magis Angelus. Forma autem Angeli est vel natura ipsa in qua subsistit, vel species quae est in intellectu eius. Ergo Angelus inclinatur in bonum per naturam suam, et per speciem intelligibilem. Haec autem inclinatio ad bonum pertinet ad voluntatem. Voluntas igitur Angeli non est aliud quam eius natura vel intellectus. Objection 1. It would seem that in the angel the will does not differ from the intellect and from the nature. For an angel is more simple than a natural body. But a natural body is inclined through its form towards its end, which is its good. Therefore much more so is the angel. Now the angel's form is either the nature in which he subsists, or else it is some species within his intellect. Therefore the angel inclines towards the good through his own nature, or through an intelligible species. But such inclination towards the good belongs to the will. Therefore the will of the angel does not differ from his nature or his intellect.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, obiectum intellectus est verum, voluntatis autem bonum. Bonum autem et verum non differunt realiter, sed secundum rationem tantum. Ergo voluntas et intellectus non differunt realiter. Objection 2. Further, the object of the intellect is the true, while the object of the will is the good. Now the good and the true differ, not really but only logically [Cf. 16, 4]. Therefore will and intellect are not really different.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, distinctio communis et proprii non diversificat potentias, eadem enim potentia visiva est coloris et albedinis. Sed bonum et verum videntur se habere sicut commune et proprium, nam verum est quoddam bonum, scilicet intellectus. Ergo voluntas, cuius obiectum est bonum, non differt ab intellectu, cuius obiectum est verum. Objection 3. Further, the distinction of common and proper does not differentiate the faculties; for the same power of sight perceives color and whiteness. But the good and the true seem to be mutually related as common to particular; for the true is a particular good, to wit, of the intellect. Therefore the will, whose object is the good, does not differ from the intellect, whose object is the true.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra, voluntas in Angelis est bonorum tantum. Intellectus autem est bonorum et malorum, cognoscunt enim utrumque. Ergo voluntas in Angelis est aliud quam eius intellectus. On the contrary, The will in the angels regards good things only, while their intellect regards both good and bad things, for they know both. Therefore the will of the angels is distinct from their intellect.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod voluntas in Angelis est quaedam virtus vel potentia, quae nec est ipsa eorum natura, nec eorum intellectus. Et quod non sit eorum natura, apparet ex hoc, quod natura vel essentia alicuius rei intra ipsam rem comprehenditur, quidquid ergo se extendit ad id quod est extra rem, non est rei essentia. Unde videmus in corporibus naturalibus, quod inclinatio quae est ad esse rei, non est per aliquid superadditum essentiae; sed per materiam, quae appetit esse antequam illud habeat, et per formam, quae tenet rem in esse postquam fuerit. Sed inclinatio ad aliquid extrinsecum, est per aliquid essentiae superadditum, sicut inclinatio ad locum est per gravitatem vel levitatem, inclinatio autem ad faciendum sibi simile est per qualitates activas. Voluntas autem habet inclinationem in bonum naturaliter. Unde ibi solum est idem essentia et voluntas, ubi totaliter bonum continetur in essentia volentis; scilicet in Deo, qui nihil vult extra se nisi ratione suae bonitatis. Quod de nulla creatura potest dici; cum bonum infinitum sit extra essentiam cuiuslibet creati. Unde nec voluntas Angeli, nec alterius creaturae, potest esse idem quod eius essentia. Similiter nec potest esse idem quod intellectus Angeli vel hominis. Nam cognitio fit per hoc quod cognitum est in cognoscente, unde ea ratione se extendit eius intellectus in id quod est extra se, secundum quod illud quod extra ipsum est per essentiam, natum est aliquo modo in eo esse. Voluntas vero se extendit in id quod extra se est, secundum quod quadam inclinatione quodammodo tendit in rem exteriorem. Alterius autem virtutis est, quod aliquid habeat in se quod est extra se, et quod ipsum tendat in rem exteriorem. Et ideo oportet quod in qualibet creatura sit aliud intellectus et voluntas. Non autem in Deo, qui habet et ens universale et bonum universale in seipso. Unde tam voluntas quam intellectus est eius essentia. I answer that, In the angels the will is a special faculty or power, which is neither their nature nor their intellect. That it is not their nature is manifest from this, that the nature or essence of a thing is completely comprised within it: whatever, then, extends to anything beyond it, is not its essence. Hence we see in natural bodies that the inclination to being does not come from anything superadded to the essence, but from the matter which desires being before possessing it, and from the form which keeps it in such being when once it exists. But the inclination towards something extrinsic comes from something superadded to the essence; as tendency to a place comes from gravity or lightness, while the inclination to make something like itself comes from the active qualities. Now the will has a natural tendency towards good. Consequently there alone are essence and will identified where all good is contained within the essence of him who wills; that is to say, in God, Who wills nothing beyond Himself except on account of His goodness. This cannot be said of any creature, because infinite goodness is quite foreign to the nature of any created thing. Accordingly, neither the will of the angel, nor that of any creature, can be the same thing as its essence. In like manner neither can the will be the same thing as the intellect of angel or man. Because knowledge comes about in so far as the object known is within the knower; consequently the intellect extends itself to what is outside it, according as what, in its essence, is outside it is disposed to be somehow within it. On the other hand, the will goes out to what is beyond it, according as by a kind of inclination it tends, in a manner, to what is outside it. Now it belongs to one faculty to have within itself something which is outside it, and to another faculty to tend to what is outside it. Consequently intellect and will must necessarily be different powers in every creature. It is not so with God, for He has within Himself universal being, and the universal good. Therefore both intellect and will are His nature.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod corpus naturale per formam substantialem inclinatur in esse suum, sed in exterius inclinatur per aliquid additum, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 1. A natural body is moved to its own being by its substantial form: while it is inclined to something outside by something additional, as has been said.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod potentiae non diversificantur secundum materialem distinctionem obiectorum, sed secundum formalem distinctionem, quae attenditur secundum rationem obiecti. Et ideo diversitas secundum rationem boni et veri, sufficit ad diversitatem intellectus et voluntatis. Reply to Objection 2. Faculties are not differentiated by any material difference of their objects, but according to their formal distinction, which is taken from the nature of the object as such. Consequently the diversity derived from the notion of good and true suffices for the difference of intellect from will.
Iª q. 59 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod, quia bonum et verum convertuntur secundum rem, inde est quod et bonum ab intellectu intelligitur sub ratione veri, et verum a voluntate appetitur sub ratione boni. Sed tamen diversitas rationum ad diversificandum potentias sufficit, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 3. Because the good and the true are really convertible, it follows that the good is apprehended by the intellect as something true; while the true is desired by the will as something good. Nevertheless, the diversity of their aspects is sufficient for diversifying the faculties, as was said above (ad 2).
Iª q. 59 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod in Angelis non sit liberum arbitrium. Actus enim liberi arbitrii est eligere. Sed electio non potest esse in Angelis, cum electio sit appetitus praeconsiliati, consilium autem est inquisitio quaedam ut dicitur in III Ethic.; Angeli autem non cognoscunt inquirendo, quia hoc pertinet ad discursum rationis. Ergo videtur quod in Angelis non sit liberum arbitrium. Objection 1. It would seem that there is no free-will in the angels. For the act of free-will is to choose. But there can be no choice with the angels, because choice is "the desire of something after taking counsel," while counsel is "a kind of inquiry," as stated in Ethic. iii, 3. But the angels' knowledge is not the result of inquiring, for this belongs to the discursiveness of reason. Therefore it appears that there is no free-will in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, liberum arbitrium se habet ad utrumlibet. Sed ex parte intellectus non est aliquid se habens ad utrumlibet in Angelis, quia intellectus eorum non fallitur in naturalibus intelligibilibus, ut dictum est. Ergo nec ex parte appetitus liberum arbitrium in eis esse potest. Objection 2. Further, free-will implies indifference to alternatives. But in the angels on the part of their intellect there is no such indifference; because, as was observed already (58, 5), their intellect is not deceived as to things which are naturally intelligible to them. Therefore neither on the part of their appetitive faculty can there be free-will.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, ea quae sunt naturalia in Angelis, conveniunt eis secundum magis et minus, quia in superioribus Angelis natura intellectualis est perfectior quam in inferioribus. Liberum autem arbitrium non recipit magis et minus. Ergo in Angelis non est liberum arbitrium. Objection 3. Further, the natural endowments of the angels belong to them according to degrees of more or less; because in the higher angels the intellectual nature is more perfect than in the lower. But the free-will does not admit of degrees. Therefore there is no free-will in them.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra, libertas arbitrii ad dignitatem hominis pertinet. Sed Angeli digniores sunt hominibus. Ergo libertas arbitrii, cum sit in hominibus, multo magis est in Angelis. On the contrary, Free-will is part of man's dignity. But the angels' dignity surpasses that of men. Therefore, since free-will is in men, with much more reason is it in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod quaedam sunt quae non agunt ex aliquo arbitrio, sed quasi ab aliis acta et mota, sicut sagitta a sagittante movetur ad finem. Quaedam vero agunt quodam arbitrio, sed non libero, sicut animalia irrationalia, ovis enim fugit lupum ex quodam iudicio, quo existimat eum sibi noxium; sed hoc iudicium non est sibi liberum, sed a natura inditum. Sed solum id quod habet intellectum, potest agere iudicio libero, inquantum cognoscit universalem rationem boni, ex qua potest iudicare hoc vel illud esse bonum. Unde ubicumque est intellectus, est liberum arbitrium. Et sic patet liberum arbitrium esse in Angelis etiam excellentius quam in hominibus, sicut et intellectum. I answer that, Some things there are which act, not from any previous judgment, but, as it were, moved and made to act by others; just as the arrow is directed to the target by the archer. Others act from some kind of judgment; but not from free-will, such as irrational animals; for the sheep flies from the wolf by a kind of judgment whereby it esteems it to be hurtful to itself: such a judgment is not a free one, but implanted by nature. Only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to be good. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free-will. It is therefore manifest that just as there is intellect, so is there free-will in the angels, and in a higher degree of perfection than in man.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod philosophus loquitur de electione secundum quod est hominis. Sicut autem aestimatio hominis in speculativis differt ab aestimatione Angeli in hoc, quod una est absque inquisitione, alia vero per inquisitionem; ita et in operativis. Unde in Angelis est electio; non tamen cum inquisitiva deliberatione consilii, sed per subitam acceptionem veritatis. Reply to Objection 1. The Philosopher is speaking of choice, as it is in man. As a man's estimate in speculative matters differs from an angel's in this, that the one needs not to inquire, while the other does so need; so is it in practical matters. Hence there is choice in the angels, yet not with the inquisitive deliberation of counsel, but by the sudden acceptance of truth.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, sicut dictum est, cognitio fit per hoc quod cognita sunt in cognoscente. Ad imperfectionem autem alicuius rei pertinet, si non sit in ea id quod natum est in ea esse. Unde Angelus non esset perfectus in sua natura, si intellectus eius non esset determinatus ad omnem veritatem quam naturaliter cognoscere potest. Sed actus appetitivae virtutis est per hoc quod affectus inclinatur ad rem exteriorem. Non autem dependet perfectio rei ex omni re ad quam inclinatur, sed solum ex superiori. Et ideo non pertinet ad imperfectionem Angeli, si non habet voluntatem determinatam respectu eorum quae infra ipsum sunt. Pertineret autem ad imperfectionem eius, si indeterminate se haberet ad illud quod supra ipsum est. Reply to Objection 2. As was observed already (2), knowledge is effected by the presence of the known within the knower. Now it is a mark of imperfection in anything not to have within it what it should naturally have. Consequently an angel would not be perfect in his nature, if his intellect were not determined to every truth which he can know naturally. But the act of the appetitive faculty comes of this, that the affection is directed to something outside. Yet the perfection of a thing does not come from everything to which it is inclined, but only from something which is higher than it. Therefore it does not argue imperfection in an angel if his will be not determined with regard to things beneath him; but it would argue imperfection in him, were he to be indeterminate to what is above him.
Iª q. 59 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod liberum arbitrium nobiliori modo est in superioribus Angelis, quam in inferioribus, sicut et iudicium intellectus. Tamen verum est quod ipsa libertas, secundum quod in ea consideratur quaedam remotio coactionis, non suscipit magis et minus, quia privationes et negationes non remittuntur nec intenduntur per se, sed solum per suam causam, vel secundum aliquam affirmationem adiunctam. Reply to Objection 3. Free-will exists in a nobler manner in the higher angels than it does in the lower, as also does the judgment of the intellect. Yet it is true that liberty, in so far as the removal of compulsion is considered, is not susceptible of greater and less degree; because privations and negations are not lessened nor increased directly of themselves; but only by their cause, or through the addition of some qualification.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod in Angelis sit irascibilis et concupiscibilis. Dicit enim Dionysius, IV cap. de Div. Nom., quod in Daemonibus est furor irrationabilis et concupiscentia amens. Sed Daemones eiusdem naturae sunt cum Angelis, quia peccatum non mutavit in eis naturam. Ergo in Angelis est irascibilis et concupiscibilis. Objection 1. It would seem that there is an irascible and a concupiscible appetite in the angels. For Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv) that in the demons there is "unreasonable fury and wild concupiscence." But demons are of the same nature as angels; for sin has not altered their nature. Therefore there is an irascible and a concupiscible appetite in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, amor et gaudium in concupiscibili sunt; ira vero, spes et timor in irascibili. Sed haec attribuuntur Angelis bonis et malis in Scripturis. Ergo in Angelis est irascibilis et concupiscibilis. Objection 2. Further, love and joy are in the concupiscible; while anger, hope, and fear are in the irascible appetite. But in the Sacred Scriptures these things are attributed both to the good and to the wicked angels. Therefore there is an irascible and a concupiscible appetite in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, virtutes quaedam dicuntur esse in irascibili et concupiscibili; sicut caritas et temperantia videntur esse in concupiscibili, spes autem et fortitudo in irascibili. Sed virtutes hae sunt in Angelis. Ergo in Angelis est concupiscibilis et irascibilis. Objection 3. Further, some virtues are said to reside in the irascible appetite and some in the concupiscible: thus charity and temperance appear to be in the concupiscible, while hope and fortitude are in the irascible. But these virtues are in the angels. Therefore there is both a concupiscible and an irascible appetite in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est quod philosophus dicit, in III de anima, quod irascibilis et concupiscibilis sunt in parte sensitiva; quae non est in Angelis. Ergo in eis non est irascibilis et concupiscibilis. On the contrary, The Philosopher says (De Anima iii, text. 42) that the irascible and concupiscible are in the sensitive part, which does not exist in angels. Consequently there is no irascible or concupiscible appetite in the angels.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod intellectivus appetitus non dividitur per irascibilem et concupiscibilem, sed solum appetitus sensitivus. Cuius ratio est quia cum potentiae non distinguantur secundum distinctionem materialem obiectorum, sed solum secundum rationem formalem obiecti; si alicui potentiae respondeat aliquod obiectum secundum rationem communem, non erit distinctio potentiarum secundum diversitatem propriorum quae sub illo communi continentur. Sicut si proprium obiectum potentiae visivae est color secundum rationem coloris, non distinguuntur plures potentiae visivae secundum differentiam albi et nigri, sed si proprium obiectum alicuius potentiae esset album inquantum album, distingueretur potentia visiva albi a potentia visiva nigri. Manifestum est autem ex dictis quod obiectum appetitus intellectivi, qui voluntas dicitur, est bonum secundum communem boni rationem, nec potest esse aliquis appetitus nisi boni. Unde in parte intellectiva appetitus non dividitur secundum distinctionem aliquorum particularium bonorum; sicut dividitur appetitus sensitivus, qui non respicit bonum secundum communem rationem, sed quoddam particulare bonum. Unde, cum in Angelis non sit nisi appetitus intellectivus, eorum appetitus non distinguitur per irascibilem et concupiscibilem, sed remanet indivisus; et vocatur voluntas. I answer that, The intellective appetite is not divided into irascible and concupiscible; only the sensitive appetite is so divided. The reason of this is because, since the faculties are distinguished from one another not according to the material but only by the formal distinction of objects, if to any faculty there respond an object according to some common idea, there will be no distinction of faculties according to the diversity of the particular things contained under that common idea. Just as if the proper object of the power of sight be color as such, then there are not several powers of sight distinguished according to the difference of black and white: whereas if the proper object of any faculty were white, as white, then the faculty of seeing white would be distinguished from the faculty of seeing black. Now it is quite evident from what has been said (1; 16, 1), that the object of the intellective appetite, otherwise known as the will, is good according to the common aspect of goodness; nor can there be any appetite except of what is good. Hence, in the intellective part, the appetite is not divided according to the distinction of some particular good things, as the sensitive appetite is divided, which does not crave for what is good according to its common aspect, but for some particular good object. Accordingly, since there exists in the angels only an intellective appetite, their appetite is not distinguished into irascible and concupiscible, but remains undivided; and it is called the will.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod furor et concupiscentia metaphorice dicuntur esse in Daemonibus, sicut et ira quandoque Deo attribuitur, propter similitudinem effectus. Reply to Objection 1. Fury and concupiscence are metaphorically said to be in the demons, as anger is sometimes attributed to God;--on account of the resemblance in the effect.
Iª q. 59 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod amor et gaudium, secundum quod sunt passiones, sunt in concupiscibili, sed secundum quod nominant simplicem voluntatis actum, sic sunt in intellectiva parte; prout amare est velle bonum alicui, et gaudere est quiescere voluntatem in aliquo bono habito. Et universaliter nihil horum dicitur de Angelis secundum passionem, ut Augustinus dicit, IX de Civ. Dei. Reply to Objection 2. Love and joy, in so far as they are passions, are in the concupiscible appetite, but in so far as they express a simple act of the will, they are in the intellective part: in this sense to love is to wish well to anyone; and to be glad is for the will to repose in some good possessed. Universally speaking, none of these things is said of the angels, as by way of passions; as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei ix).
Iª q. 59 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod caritas, secundum quod est virtus, non est in concupiscibili, sed in voluntate. Nam obiectum concupiscibilis est bonum delectabile secundum sensum, huiusmodi autem non est bonum divinum, quod est obiectum caritatis. Et eadem ratione dicendum est quod spes non est in irascibili, quia obiectum irascibilis est quoddam arduum quod est sensibile, circa quod non est spes quae est virtus, sed circa arduum divinum. Temperantia autem, secundum quod est virtus humana, est circa concupiscentias delectabilium sensibilium, quae pertinent ad vim concupiscibilem. Et similiter fortitudo est circa audacias et timores quae sunt in irascibili. Et ideo temperantia, secundum quod est virtus humana, est in concupiscibili, et fortitudo in irascibili. Sed hoc modo non sunt in Angelis. Non enim in eis sunt passiones concupiscentiarum, vel timoris et audaciae, quas oporteat per temperantiam et fortitudinem regulare. Sed temperantia in eis dicitur, secundum quod moderate suam voluntatem exhibent secundum regulam divinae voluntatis. Et fortitudo in eis dicitur, secundum quod voluntatem divinam firmiter exequuntur. Quod totum fit per voluntatem; et non per irascibilem et concupiscibilem. Reply to Objection 3. Charity, as a virtue, is not in the concupiscible appetite, but in the will; because the object of the concupiscible appetite is the good as delectable to the senses. But the Divine goodness, which is the object of charity, is not of any such kind. For the same reason it must be said that hope does not exist in the irascible appetite; because the object of the irascible appetite is something arduous belonging to the sensible order, which the virtue of hope does not regard; since the object of hope is arduous and divine. Temperance, however, considered as a human virtue, deals with the desires of sensible pleasures, which belong to the concupiscible faculty. Similarly, fortitude regulates daring and fear, which reside in the irascible part. Consequently temperance, in so far as it is a human virtue, resides in the concupiscible part, and fortitude in the irascible. But they do not exist in the angels in this manner. For in them there are no passions of concupiscence, nor of fear and daring, to be regulated by temperance and fortitude. But temperance is predicated of them according as in moderation they display their will in conformity with the Divine will. Fortitude is likewise attributed to them, in so far as they firmly carry out the Divine will. All of this is done by their will, and not by the irascible or concupiscible appetite.

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