Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part I/Q31

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Q30 Q32



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Iª q. 31 pr. Post haec considerandum est de his quae ad unitatem vel pluralitatem pertinent in divinis. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, de ipso nomine Trinitatis. Secundo, utrum possit dici, filius est alius a patre. Tertio, utrum dictio exclusiva, quae videtur alietatem excludere, possit adiungi nomini essentiali in divinis. Quarto, utrum possit adiungi termino personali.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod non sit Trinitas in divinis. Omne enim nomen in divinis vel significat substantiam, vel relationem. Sed hoc nomen Trinitas non significat substantiam, praedicaretur enim de singulis personis. Neque significat relationem, quia non dicitur secundum nomen ad aliud. Ergo nomine Trinitatis non est utendum in divinis. Objection 1. It would seem there is not trinity in God. For every name in God signifies substance or relation. But this name "Trinity" does not signify the substance; otherwise it would be predicated of each one of the persons: nor does it signify relation; for it does not express a name that refers to another. Therefore the word "Trinity" is not to be applied to God.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, hoc nomen Trinitas videtur esse nomen collectivum, cum significet multitudinem. Tale autem nomen non convenit in divinis, cum unitas importata per nomen collectivum sit minima unitas, in divinis autem est maxima unitas. Ergo hoc nomen Trinitas non convenit in divinis. Objection 2. Further, this word "trinity" is a collective term, since it signifies multitude. But such a word does not apply to God; as the unity of a collective name is the least of unities, whereas in God there exists the greatest possible unity. Therefore this word "trinity" does not apply to God.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, omne trinum est triplex. Sed in Deo non est triplicitas, cum triplicitas sit species inaequalitatis. Ergo nec Trinitas. Objection 3. Further, every trine is threefold. But in God there is not triplicity; since triplicity is a kind of inequality. Therefore neither is there trinity in God.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 arg. 4 Praeterea, quidquid est in Deo, est in unitate essentiae divinae, quia Deus est sua essentia. Si igitur Trinitas est in Deo, erit in unitate essentiae divinae. Et sic in Deo erunt tres essentiales unitates, quod est haereticum. Objection 4. Further, all that exists in God exists in the unity of the divine essence; because God is His own essence. Therefore, if Trinity exists in God, it exists in the unity of the divine essence; and thus in God there would be three essential unities; which is heresy.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 arg. 5 Praeterea, in omnibus quae dicuntur de Deo, concretum praedicatur de abstracto, deitas enim est Deus, et paternitas est pater. Sed Trinitas non potest dici trina, quia sic essent novem res in divinis, quod est erroneum. Ergo nomine Trinitatis non est utendum in divinis. Objection 5. Further, in all that is said of God, the concrete is predicated of the abstract; for Deity is God and paternity is the Father. But the Trinity cannot be called trine; otherwise there would be nine realities in God; which, of course, is erroneous. Therefore the word trinity is not to be applied to God.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod Athanasius dicit, quod unitas in Trinitate, et Trinitas in unitate veneranda sit. On the contrary, Athanasius says: "Unity in Trinity; and Trinity in Unity is to be revered."
Iª q. 31 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod nomen Trinitatis in divinis significat determinatum numerum personarum. Sicut igitur ponitur pluralitas personarum in divinis, ita utendum est nomine Trinitatis, quia hoc idem quod significat pluralitas indeterminate, significat hoc nomen Trinitas determinate. I answer that, The name "Trinity" in God signifies the determinate number of persons. And so the plurality of persons in God requires that we should use the word trinity; because what is indeterminately signified by plurality, is signified by trinity in a determinate manner.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod hoc nomen Trinitas, secundum etymologiam vocabuli, videtur significare unam essentiam trium personarum, secundum quod dicitur Trinitas quasi trium unitas. Sed secundum proprietatem vocabuli, significat magis numerum personarum unius essentiae. Et propter hoc non possumus dicere quod pater sit Trinitas, quia non est tres personae. Non autem significat ipsas relationes personarum, sed magis numerum personarum ad invicem relatarum. Et inde est quod, secundum nomen, ad aliud non refertur. Reply to Objection 1. In its etymological sense, this word "Trinity" seems to signify the one essence of the three persons, according as trinity may mean trine-unity. But in the strict meaning of the term it rather signifies the number of persons of one essence; and on this account we cannot say that the Father is the Trinity, as He is not three persons. Yet it does not mean the relations themselves of the Persons, but rather the number of persons related to each other; and hence it is that the word in itself does not express regard to another.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod nomen collectivum duo importat, scilicet pluralitatem suppositorum, et unitatem quandam, scilicet ordinis alicuius, populus enim est multitudo hominum sub aliquo ordine comprehensorum. Quantum ergo ad primum, hoc nomen Trinitas convenit cum nominibus collectivis, sed quantum ad secundum differt, quia in divina Trinitate non solum est unitas ordinis, sed cum hoc est etiam unitas essentiae. Reply to Objection 2. Two things are implied in a collective term, plurality of the "supposita," and a unity of some kind of order. For "people" is a multitude of men comprehended under a certain order. In the first sense, this word "trinity" is like other collective words; but in the second sense it differs from them, because in the divine Trinity not only is there unity of order, but also with this there is unity of essence.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod Trinitas absolute dicitur, significat enim numerum ternarium personarum. Sed triplicitas significat proportionem inaequalitatis, est enim species proportionis inaequalis, sicut patet per Boetium in arithmetica. Et ideo non est in Deo triplicitas, sed Trinitas. Reply to Objection 3. "Trinity" is taken in an absolute sense; for it signifies the threefold number of persons. "Triplicity" signifies a proportion of inequality; for it is a species of unequal proportion, according to Boethius (Arithm. i, 23). Therefore in God there is not triplicity, but Trinity.
Iª q. 31 a. 1 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod in Trinitate divina intelligitur et numerus, et personae numeratae. Cum ergo dicimus Trinitatem in unitate, non ponimus numerum in unitate essentiae, quasi sit ter una, sed personas numeratas ponimus in unitate naturae, sicut supposita alicuius naturae dicuntur esse in natura illa. E converso autem dicimus unitatem in Trinitate, sicut natura dicitur esse in suis suppositis. Reply to Objection 4. In the divine Trinity is to be understood both number and the persons numbered. So when we say, "Trinity in Unity," we do not place number in the unity of the essence, as if we meant three times one; but we place the Persons numbered in the unity of nature; as the "supposita" of a nature are said to exist in that nature. On the other hand, we say "Unity in Trinity"; meaning that the nature is in its "supposita."
Iª q. 31 a. 1 ad 5 Ad quintum dicendum quod, cum dicitur, Trinitas est trina, ratione numeri importati significatur multiplicatio eiusdem numeri in seipsum, cum hoc quod dico trinum, importet distinctionem in suppositis illius de quo dicitur. Et ideo non potest dici quod Trinitas sit trina, quia sequeretur, si Trinitas esset trina, quod tria essent supposita Trinitatis; sicut cum dicitur, Deus est trinus, sequitur quod sunt tria supposita deitatis. Reply to Objection 5. When we say, "Trinity is trine," by reason of the number implied, we signify the multiplication of that number by itself; since the word trine imports a distinction in the "supposita" of which it is spoken. Therefore it cannot be said that the Trinity is trine; otherwise it follows that, if the Trinity be trine, there would be three "supposita" of the Trinity; as when we say, "God is trine," it follows that there are three "supposita" of the Godhead.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod filius non sit alius a patre. Alius enim est relativum diversitatis substantiae. Si igitur filius est alius a patre, videtur quod sit a patre diversus. Quod est contra Augustinum, VII de Trin., ubi dicit quod, cum dicimus tres personas, non diversitatem intelligere volumus. Objection 1. It would seem that the Son is not other than the Father. For "other" is a relative term implying diversity of substance. If, then, the Son is other than the Father, He must be different from the Father; which is contrary to what Augustine says (De Trin. vii), that when we speak of three persons, "we do not mean to imply diversity."
Iª q. 31 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, quicumque sunt alii ab invicem, aliquo modo ab invicem differunt. Si igitur filius est alius a patre, sequitur quod sit differens a patre. Quod est contra Ambrosium, in I de fide, ubi ait, pater et filius deitate unum sunt, nec est ibi substantiae differentia, neque ulla diversitas. Objection 2. Further, whosoever are other from one another, differ in some way from one another. Therefore, if the Son is other than the Father, it follows that He differs from the Father; which is against what Ambrose says (De Fide i), that "the Father and the Son are one in Godhead; nor is there any difference in substance between them, nor any diversity."
Iª q. 31 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, ab alio alienum dicitur. Sed filius non est alienus a patre, dicit enim Hilarius, in VII de Trin., quod in divinis personis nihil est diversum, nihil alienum, nihil separabile. Ergo filius non est alius a patre. Objection 3. Further, the term alien is taken from "alius" [other]. But the Son is not alien from the Father, for Hilary says (De Trin. vii) that "in the divine persons there is nothing diverse, nothing alien, nothing separable." Therefore the Son is not other that the Father.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 arg. 4 Praeterea, alius et aliud idem significant, sed sola generis consignificatione differunt. Si ergo filius est alius a patre, videtur sequi quod filius sit aliud a patre. Objection 4. Further, the terms "other person" and "other thing" [alius et aliud] have the same meaning, differing only in gender. So if the Son is another person from the Father, it follows that the Son is a thing apart from the Father.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in libro de fide ad Petrum, una est enim essentia patris et filii et spiritus sancti, in qua non est aliud pater, aliud filius, aliud spiritus sanctus; quamvis personaliter sit alius pater, alius filius, alius spiritus sanctus. On the contrary, Augustine [Fulgentius, De Fide ad Petrum i.] says: "There is one essence of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost, in which the Father is not one thing, the Son another, and the Holy Ghost another; although the Father is one person, the Son another, and the Holy Ghost another."
Iª q. 31 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, quia ex verbis inordinate prolatis incurritur haeresis, ut Hieronymus dicit, ideo cum de Trinitate loquimur, cum cautela et modestia est agendum, quia, ut Augustinus dicit, in I de Trin., nec periculosius alicubi erratur, nec laboriosius aliquid quaeritur, nec fructuosius aliquid invenitur. Oportet autem in his quae de Trinitate loquimur, duos errores oppositos cavere, temperate inter utrumque procedentes, scilicet errorem Arii, qui posuit cum Trinitate personarum Trinitatem substantiarum; et errorem Sabellii, qui posuit cum unitate essentiae unitatem personae. Ad evitandum igitur errorem Arii, vitare debemus in divinis nomen diversitatis et differentiae, ne tollatur unitas essentiae, possumus autem uti nomine distinctionis, propter oppositionem relativam. Unde sicubi in aliqua Scriptura authentica diversitas vel differentia personarum invenitur, sumitur diversitas vel differentia pro distinctione. Ne autem tollatur simplicitas divinae essentiae, vitandum est nomen separationis et divisionis, quae est totius in partes. Ne autem tollatur aequalitas, vitandum est nomen disparitatis. Ne vero tollatur similitudo, vitandum est nomen alieni et discrepantis, dicit enim Ambrosius, in libro de fide, quod in patre et filio non est discrepans, sed una divinitas, et secundum Hilarium, ut dictum est, in divinis nihil est alienum, nihil separabile. Ad vitandum vero errorem Sabellii, vitare debemus singularitatem, ne tollatur communicabilitas essentiae divinae, unde Hilarius dicit, VII de Trin., patrem et filium singularem Deum praedicare, sacrilegum est. Debemus etiam vitare nomen unici, ne tollatur numerus personarum, unde Hilarius in eodem libro dicit quod a Deo excluditur singularis atque unici intelligentia. Dicimus tamen unicum filium, quia non sunt plures filii in divinis. Neque tamen dicimus unicum Deum, quia pluribus deitas est communis vitamus etiam nomen confusi, ne tollatur ordo naturae a personis, unde Ambrosius dicit, I de fide, neque confusum est quod unum est, neque multiplex esse potest quod indifferens est. Vitandum est etiam nomen solitarii, ne tollatur consortium trium personarum, dicit enim Hilarius, in IV de Trin., nobis neque solitarius, neque diversus Deus est confitendus. Hoc autem nomen alius, masculine sumptum, non importat nisi distinctionem suppositi. Unde convenienter dicere possumus quod filius est alius a patre, quia scilicet est aliud suppositum divinae naturae, sicut est alia persona, et alia hypostasis. I answer that, Since as Jerome remarks [In substance, Ep. lvii.], a heresy arises from words wrongly used, when we speak of the Trinity we must proceed with care and with befitting modesty; because, as Augustine says (De Trin. i, 3), "nowhere is error more harmful, the quest more toilsome, the finding more fruitful." Now, in treating of the Trinity, we must beware of two opposite errors, and proceed cautiously between them--namely, the error of Arius, who placed a Trinity of substance with the Trinity of persons; and the error of Sabellius, who placed unity of person with the unity of essence. Thus, to avoid the error of Arius we must shun the use of the terms diversity and difference in God, lest we take away the unity of essence: we may, however, use the term "distinction" on account of the relative opposition. Hence whenever we find terms of "diversity" or "difference" of Persons used in an authentic work, these terms of "diversity" or "difference" are taken to mean "distinction." But lest the simplicity and singleness of the divine essence be taken away, the terms "separation" and "division," which belong to the parts of a whole, are to be avoided: and lest quality be taken away, we avoid the use of the term "disparity": and lest we remove similitude, we avoid the terms "alien" and "discrepant." For Ambrose says (De Fide i) that "in the Father and the Son there is no discrepancy, but one Godhead": and according to Hilary, as quoted above, "in God there is nothing alien, nothing separable." To avoid the heresy of Sabellius, we must shun the term "singularity," lest we take away the communicability of the divine essence. Hence Hilary says (De Trin. vii): "It is sacrilege to assert that the Father and the Son are separate in Godhead." We must avoid the adjective "only" [unici] lest we take away the number of persons. Hence Hilary says in the same book: "We exclude from God the idea of singularity or uniqueness." Nevertheless, we say "the only Son," for in God there is no plurality of Sons. Yet, we do not say "the only God," for the Deity is common to several. We avoid the word "confused," lest we take away from the Persons the order of their nature. Hence Ambrose says (De Fide i): "What is one is not confused; and there is no multiplicity where there is no difference." The word "solitary" is also to be avoided, lest we take away the society of the three persons; for, as Hilary says (De Trin. iv), "We confess neither a solitary nor a diverse God." This word "other" [alius], however, in the masculine sense, means only a distinction of "suppositum"; and hence we can properly say that "the Son is other than the Father," because He is another "suppositum" of the divine nature, as He is another person and another hypostasis.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod alius, quia est sicut quoddam particulare nomen, tenet se ex parte suppositi, unde ad eius rationem sufficit distinctio substantiae quae est hypostasis vel persona. Sed diversitas requirit distinctionem substantiae quae est essentia. Et ideo non possumus dicere quod filius sit diversus a patre, licet sit alius. Reply to Objection 1. "Other," being like the name of a particular thing, refers to the "suppositum"; and so, there is sufficient reason for using it, where there is a distinct substance in the sense of hypostasis or person. But diversity requires a distinct substance in the sense of essence. Thus we cannot say that the Son is diverse from the Father, although He is another.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod differentia importat distinctionem formae. Est autem tantum una forma in divinis, ut patet per id quod dicitur Philip. II, qui cum in forma Dei esset. Et ideo nomen differentis non proprie competit in divinis, ut patet per auctoritatem inductam. Utitur tamen Damascenus nomine differentiae in divinis personis, secundum quod proprietas relativa significatur per modum formae, unde dicit quod non differunt ab invicem hypostases secundum substantiam, sed secundum determinatas proprietates. Sed differentia sumitur pro distinctione, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 2. "Difference" implies distinction of form. There is one form in God, as appears from the text, "Who, when He was in the form of God" (Phil. 2:6). Therefore the term "difference" does not properly apply to God, as appears from the authority quoted. Yet, Damascene (De Fide Orth. i, 5) employs the term "difference" in the divine persons, as meaning that the relative property is signified by way of form. Hence he says that the hypostases do not differ from each other in substance, but according to determinate properties. But "difference" is taken for "distinction," as above stated.
Iª q. 31 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod alienum est quod est extraneum et dissimile. Sed hoc non importatur cum dicitur alius. Et ideo dicimus filium alium a patre, licet non dicamus alienum. Reply to Objection 3. The term "alien" means what is extraneous and dissimilar; which is not expressed by the term "other" [alius]; and therefore we say that the Son is "other" than the Father, but not that He is anything "alien."
Iª q. 31 a. 2 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod neutrum genus est informe, masculinum autem est formatum et distinctum, et similiter femininum. Et ideo convenienter per neutrum genus significatur essentia communis, per masculinum autem et femininum, aliquod suppositum determinatum in communi natura. Unde etiam in rebus humanis, si quaeratur, quis est iste? Respondetur, Socrates, quod nomen est suppositi, si autem quaeratur, quid est iste? Respondetur, animal rationale et mortale. Et ideo, quia in divinis distinctio est secundum personas, non autem secundum essentiam, dicimus quod pater est alius a filio, sed non aliud, et e converso dicimus quod sunt unum, sed non unus. Reply to Objection 4. The neuter gender is formless; whereas the masculine is formed and distinct; and so is the feminine. So the common essence is properly and aptly expressed by the neuter gender, but by the masculine and feminine is expressed the determined subject in the common nature. Hence also in human affairs, if we ask, Who is this man? we answer, Socrates, which is the name of the "suppositum"; whereas, if we ask, What is he? we reply, A rational and mortal animal. So, because in God distinction is by the persons, and not by the essence, we say that the Father is other than the Son, but not something else; while conversely we say that they are one thing, but not one person.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod dictio exclusiva solus non sit addenda termino essentiali in divinis. Quia secundum philosophum, in II Elench., solus est qui cum alio non est. Sed Deus est cum Angelis et sanctis animabus. Ergo non possumus dicere Deum solum. Objection 1. It would seem that the exclusive word "alone" [solus] is not to be added to an essential term in God. For, according to the Philosopher (Elench. ii, 3), "He is alone who is not with another." But God is with the angels and the souls of the saints. Therefore we cannot say that God is alone.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, quidquid adiungitur termino essentiali in divinis, potest praedicari de qualibet persona per se, et de omnibus simul, quia enim convenienter dicitur sapiens Deus, possumus dicere, pater est sapiens Deus, et Trinitas est sapiens Deus. Sed Augustinus, in VI de Trin., dicit, consideranda est illa sententia, qua dicitur non esse patrem verum Deum solum. Ergo non potest dici solus Deus. Objection 2. Further, whatever is joined to the essential term in God can be predicated of every person "per se," and of all the persons together; for, as we can properly say that God is wise, we can say the Father is a wise God; and the Trinity is a wise God. But Augustine says (De Trin. vi, 9): "We must consider the opinion that the Father is not true God alone." Therefore God cannot be said to be alone.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, si haec dictio solus adiungitur termino essentiali, aut hoc erit respectu praedicati personalis, aut respectu praedicati essentialis. Sed non respectu praedicati personalis, quia haec est falsa, solus Deus est pater, cum etiam homo sit pater. Neque etiam respectu praedicati essentialis. Quia si haec esset vera, solus Deus creat, videtur sequi quod haec esset vera, solus pater creat, quia quidquid dicitur de Deo, potest dici de patre. Haec autem est falsa, quia etiam filius est creator. Non ergo haec dictio solus potest in divinis adiungi termino essentiali. Objection 3. Further if this expression "alone" is joined to an essential term, it would be so joined as regards either the personal predicate or the essential predicate. But it cannot be the former, as it is false to say, "God alone is Father," since man also is a father; nor, again, can it be applied as regards the latter, for, if this saying were true, "God alone creates," it would follow that the "Father alone creates," as whatever is said of God can be said of the Father; and it would be false, as the Son also creates. Therefore this expression "alone" cannot be joined to an essential term in God.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur I ad Tim. I, regi saeculorum immortali, invisibili, soli Deo. On the contrary, It is said, "To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God" (1 Tim. 1:17).
Iª q. 31 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod haec dictio solus potest accipi ut categorematica vel syncategorematica. Dicitur autem dictio categorematica, quae absolute ponit rem significatam circa aliquod suppositum; ut albus circa hominem, cum dicitur homo albus. Si ergo sic accipiatur haec dictio solus, nullo modo potest adiungi alicui termino in divinis, quia poneret solitudinem circa terminum cui adiungeretur, et sic sequeretur Deum esse solitarium; quod est contra praedicta. Dictio vero syncategorematica dicitur, quae importat ordinem praedicati ad subiectum, sicut haec dictio omnis, vel nullus. Et similiter haec dictio solus, quia excludit omne aliud suppositum a consortio praedicati. Sicut, cum dicitur, solus Socrates scribit, non datur intelligi quod Socrates sit solitarius; sed quod nullus sit ei consors in scribendo, quamvis cum eo multis existentibus. Et per hunc modum nihil prohibet hanc dictionem solus adiungere alicui essentiali termino in divinis, inquantum excluduntur omnia alia a Deo a consortio praedicati, ut si dicamus, solus Deus est aeternus, quia nihil praeter Deum est aeternum. I answer that, This term "alone" can be taken as a categorematical term, or as a syncategorematical term. A categorematical term is one which ascribes absolutely its meaning to a given "suppositum"; as, for instance, "white" to man, as when we say a "white man." If the term "alone" is taken in this sense, it cannot in any way be joined to any term in God; for it would mean solitude in the term to which it is joined; and it would follow that God was solitary, against what is above stated (2). A syncategorematical term imports the order of the predicate to the subject; as this expression "every one" or "no one"; and likewise the term "alone," as excluding every other "suppositum" from the predicate. Thus, when we say, "Socrates alone writes," we do not mean that Socrates is solitary, but that he has no companion in writing, though many others may be with him. In this way nothing prevents the term "alone" being joined to any essential term in God, as excluding the predicate from all things but God; as if we said "God alone is eternal," because nothing but God is eternal.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, licet Angeli et animae sanctae semper sint cum Deo, tamen, si non esset pluralitas personarum in divinis, sequeretur, quod Deus esset solus vel solitarius. Non enim tollitur solitudo per associationem alicuius quod est extraneae naturae, dicitur enim aliquis solus esse in horto, quamvis sint ibi multae plantae et animalia. Et similiter diceretur Deus esse solus vel solitarius, Angelis et hominibus cum eo existentibus, si non essent in divinis personae plures. Consociatio igitur Angelorum et animarum non excludit solitudinem absolutam a divinis, et multo minus solitudinem respectivam, per comparationem ad aliquod praedicatum. Reply to Objection 1. Although the angels and the souls of the saints are always with God, nevertheless, if plurality of persons did not exist in God, He would be alone or solitary. For solitude is not removed by association with anything that is extraneous in nature; thus anyone is said to be alone in a garden, though many plants and animals are with him in the garden. Likewise, God would be alone or solitary, though angels and men were with Him, supposing that several persons were not within Him. Therefore the society of angels and of souls does not take away absolute solitude from God; much less does it remove respective solitude, in reference to a predicate.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod haec dictio solus, proprie loquendo, non ponitur ex parte praedicati, quod sumitur formaliter, respicit enim suppositum, inquantum excludit aliud suppositum ab eo cui adiungitur. Sed hoc adverbium tantum, cum sit exclusivum, potest poni ex parte subiecti, et ex parte praedicati, possumus enim dicere, tantum Socrates currit, idest nullus alius; et, Socrates currit tantum, idest nihil aliud facit. Unde non proprie dici potest, pater est solus Deus, vel, Trinitas est solus Deus, nisi forte ex parte praedicati intelligatur aliqua implicatio, ut dicatur, Trinitas est Deus qui est solus Deus. Et secundum hoc etiam posset esse vera ista, pater est Deus qui est solus Deus, si relativum referret praedicatum, et non suppositum. Augustinus autem, cum dicit patrem non esse solum Deum, sed Trinitatem esse solum Deum, loquitur expositive, ac si diceret, cum dicitur, regi saeculorum, invisibili, soli Deo, non est exponendum de persona patris, sed de sola Trinitate. Reply to Objection 2. This expression "alone," properly speaking, does not affect the predicate, which is taken formally, for it refers to the "suppositum," as excluding any other suppositum from the one which it qualifies. But the adverb "only," being exclusive, can be applied either to subject or predicate. For we can say, "Only Socrates"--that is, no one else--"runs: and Socrates runs only"--that is, he does nothing else. Hence it is not properly said that the Father is God alone, or the Trinity is God alone, unless some implied meaning be assumed in the predicate, as, for instance, "The Trinity is God Who alone is God." In that sense it can be true to say that the Father is that God Who alone is God, if the relative be referred to the predicate, and not to the "suppositum." So, when Augustine says that the Father is not God alone, but that the Trinity is God alone, he speaks expositively, as he might explain the words, "To the King of ages, invisible, the only God," as applying not to the Father, but to the Trinity alone.
Iª q. 31 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod utroque modo potest haec dictio solus adiungi termino essentiali. Haec enim propositio, solus Deus est pater, est duplex. Quia ly pater potest praedicare personam patris, et sic est vera, non enim homo est illa persona. Vel potest praedicare relationem tantum, et sic est falsa, quia relatio paternitatis etiam in aliis invenitur, licet non univoce. Similiter haec est vera, solus Deus creat. Nec tamen sequitur, ergo solus pater, quia, ut sophistae dicunt, dictio exclusiva immobilitat terminum cui adiungitur, ut non possit fieri sub eo descensus pro aliquo suppositorum; non enim sequitur, solus homo est animal rationale mortale, ergo solus Socrates. Reply to Objection 3. In both ways can the term "alone" be joined to an essential term. For this proposition, "God alone is Father," can mean two things, because the word "Father" can signify the person of the Father; and then it is true; for no man is that person: or it can signify that relation only; and thus it is false, because the relation of paternity is found also in others, though not in a univocal sense. Likewise it is true to say God alone creates; nor, does it follow, "therefore the Father alone creates," because, as logicians say, an exclusive diction so fixes the term to which it is joined that what is said exclusively of that term cannot be said exclusively of an individual contained in that term: for instance, from the premiss, "Man alone is a mortal rational animal," we cannot conclude, "therefore Socrates alone is such."
Iª q. 31 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dictio exclusiva possit adiungi termino personali, etiam si praedicatum sit commune. Dicit enim dominus, ad patrem loquens, Ioan. XVII, ut cognoscant te, solum Deum verum. Ergo solus pater est Deus verus. Objection 1. It would seem that an exclusive diction can be joined to the personal term, even though the predicate is common. For our Lord speaking to the Father, said: "That they may know Thee, the only true God" (Jn. 17:3). Therefore the Father alone is true God.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, Matth. XI dicitur, nemo novit filium nisi pater; quod idem significat ac si diceretur, solus pater novit filium. Sed nosse filium est commune. Ergo idem quod prius. Objection 2. Further, He said: "No one knows the Son but the Father" (Mt. 11:27); which means that the Father alone knows the Son. But to know the Son is common (to the persons). Therefore the same conclusion follows.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, dictio exclusiva non excludit illud quod est de intellectu termini cui adiungitur, unde non excludit partem, neque universale, non enim sequitur, solus Socrates est albus, ergo manus eius non est alba; vel, ergo homo non est albus. Sed una persona est in intellectu alterius, sicut pater in intellectu filii, et e converso. Non ergo per hoc quod dicitur, solus pater est Deus, excluditur filius vel spiritus sanctus. Et sic videtur haec locutio esse vera. Objection 3. Further, an exclusive diction does not exclude what enters into the concept of the term to which it is joined. Hence it does not exclude the part, nor the universal; for it does not follow that if we say "Socrates alone is white," that therefore "his hand is not white," or that "man is not white." But one person is in the concept of another; as the Father is in the concept of the Son; and conversely. Therefore, when we say, The Father alone is God, we do not exclude the Son, nor the Holy Ghost; so that such a mode of speaking is true.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 arg. 4 Praeterea, ab Ecclesia cantatur, tu solus altissimus, Iesu Christe. Objection 4. Further, the Church sings: "Thou alone art Most High, O Jesus Christ."
Iª q. 31 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra, haec locutio, solus pater est Deus, habet duas expositivas, scilicet, pater est Deus, et, nullus alius a patre est Deus. Sed haec secunda est falsa, quia filius alius est a patre, qui est Deus. Ergo et haec est falsa, solus pater est Deus. Et sic de similibus. On the contrary, This proposition "The Father alone is God" includes two assertions--namely, that the Father is God, and that no other besides the Father is God. But this second proposition is false, for the Son is another from the Father, and He is God. Therefore this is false, The Father alone is God; and the same of the like sayings.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, cum dicimus, solus pater est Deus, haec propositio potest habere multiplicem intellectum. Si enim solus ponat solitudinem circa patrem, sic est falsa, secundum quod sumitur categorematice. Secundum vero quod sumitur syncategorematice, sic iterum potest intelligi multipliciter. Quia si excludat a forma subiecti, sic est vera, ut sit sensus, solus pater est Deus, idest, ille cum quo nullus alius est pater, est Deus. Et hoc modo exponit Augustinus, in VI de Trin., cum dicit, solum patrem dicimus, non quia separatur a filio vel spiritu sancto; sed hoc dicentes, significamus quod illi simul cum eo non sunt pater. Sed hic sensus non habetur ex consueto modo loquendi, nisi intellecta aliqua implicatione, ut si dicatur, ille qui solus dicitur pater, est Deus. Secundum vero proprium sensum, excludit a consortio praedicati. Et sic haec propositio est falsa, si excludit alium masculine, est autem vera, si excludit aliud neutraliter tantum, quia filius est alius a patre, non tamen aliud; similiter et spiritus sanctus. Sed quia haec dictio solus respicit proprie subiectum, ut dictum est, magis se habet ad excludendum alium quam aliud. Unde non est extendenda talis locutio; sed pie exponenda, sicubi inveniatur in authentica Scriptura. I answer that, When we say, "The Father alone is God," such a proposition can be taken in several senses. If "alone" means solitude in the Father, it is false in a categorematical sense; but if taken in a syncategorematical sense it can again be understood in several ways. For if it exclude (all others) from the form of the subject, it is true, the sense being "the Father alone is God"--that is, "He who with no other is the Father, is God." In this way Augustine expounds when he says (De Trin. vi, 6): "We say the Father alone, not because He is separate from the Son, or from the Holy Ghost, but because they are not the Father together with Him." This, however, is not the usual way of speaking, unless we understand another implication, as though we said "He who alone is called the Father is God." But in the strict sense the exclusion affects the predicate. And thus the proposition is false if it excludes another in the masculine sense; but true if it excludes it in the neuter sense; because the Son is another person than the Father, but not another thing; and the same applies to the Holy Ghost. But because this diction "alone," properly speaking, refers to the subject, it tends to exclude another Person rather than other things. Hence such a way of speaking is not to be taken too literally, but it should be piously expounded, whenever we find it in an authentic work.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, cum dicimus, te solum Deum verum, non intelligitur de persona patris, sed de tota Trinitate, ut Augustinus exponit. Vel, si intelligatur de persona patris, non excluduntur aliae personae, propter essentiae unitatem, prout ly solus excludit tantum aliud, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 1. When we say, "Thee the only true God," we do not understand it as referring to the person of the Father, but to the whole Trinity, as Augustine expounds (De Trin. vi, 9). Or, if understood of the person of the Father, the other persons are not excluded by reason of the unity of essence; in so far as the word "only" excludes another thing, as above explained.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 ad 2 Et similiter dicendum est ad secundum. Cum enim aliquid essentiale dicitur de patre, non excluditur filius vel spiritus sanctus, propter essentiae unitatem. Tamen sciendum est quod in auctoritate praedicta, haec dictio nemo non idem est quod nullus homo, quod videtur significare vocabulum (non enim posset excipi persona patris), sed sumitur, secundum usum loquendi, distributive pro quacumque rationali natura. The same Reply can be given to Objection 2. For an essential term applied to the Father does not exclude the Son or the Holy Ghost, by reason of the unity of essence. Hence we must understand that in the text quoted the term "no one" [Nemo = non-homo, i.e. no man] is not the same as "no man," which the word itself would seem to signify (for the person of the Father could not be excepted), but is taken according to the usual way of speaking in a distributive sense, to mean any rational nature.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod dictio exclusiva non excludit illa quae sunt de intellectu termini cui adiungitur, si non differunt secundum suppositum, ut pars et universale. Sed filius differt supposito a patre, et ideo non est similis ratio. Reply to Objection 3. The exclusive diction does not exclude what enters into the concept of the term to which it is adjoined, if they do not differ in "suppositum," as part and universal. But the Son differs in "suppositum" from the Father; and so there is no parity.
Iª q. 31 a. 4 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod non dicimus absolute quod solus filius sit altissimus, sed quod solus sit altissimus cum spiritu sancto, in gloria Dei patris. Reply to Objection 4. We do not say absolutely that the Son alone is Most High; but that He alone is Most High "with the Holy Ghost, in the glory of God the Father."

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