Authors/Thomas Aquinas/Summa Theologiae/Part I/Q112

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Q111 Q113



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Iª q. 112 pr. Deinde considerandum est de missione Angelorum. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, utrum aliqui Angeli mittantur in ministerium. Secundo, utrum omnes mittantur. Tertio, utrum illi qui mittuntur, assistant. Quarto, de quibus ordinibus mittantur. Question 112. The mission of the angelsAre any angels sent on works of ministry? Are all sent? Do those who are sent, assist? From what orders are they sent?
Iª q. 112 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Angeli in ministerium non mittantur. Omnis enim missio est ad aliquem determinatum locum. Sed actiones intellectuales non determinant aliquem locum, quia intellectus abstrahit ab hic et nunc. Cum igitur actiones angelicae sint intellectuales, videtur quod Angeli ad suas actiones agendas non mittantur. Objection 1. It would seem that the angels are not sent on works of ministry. For every mission is to some determinate place. But intellectual actions do not determine a place, for intellect abstracts from the "here" and "now." Since therefore the angelic actions are intellectual, it appears that the angels are not sent to perform their own actions.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, caelum Empyreum est locus pertinens ad dignitatem Angelorum. Si igitur ad nos mittantur in ministerium, videtur quod eorum dignitati aliquid depereat. Quod est inconveniens. Objection 2. Further, the empyrean heaven is the place that beseems the angelic dignity. Therefore if they are sent to us in ministry, it seems that something of their dignity would be lost; which is unseemly.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, exterior occupatio impedit sapientiae contemplationem, unde dicitur Eccli. XXXVIII, qui minoratur actu, percipiet sapientiam. Si igitur Angeli aliqui mittuntur ad exteriora ministeria, videtur quod retardentur a contemplatione. Sed tota eorum beatitudo in contemplatione Dei consistit. Si ergo mitterentur, eorum beatitudo minueretur. Quod est inconveniens. Objection 3. Further, external occupation hinders the contemplation of wisdom; hence it is said: "He that is less in action, shall receive wisdom" (Sirach 38:25). So if some angels are sent on external ministrations, they would seemingly be hindered from contemplation. But the whole of their beatitude consists in the contemplation of God. So if they were sent, their beatitude would be lessened; which is unfitting.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 arg. 4 Praeterea, ministrare est inferioris, unde dicitur Lucae XXII, quis maior est, qui recumbit, an ille qui ministrat? Nonne qui recumbit? Sed Angeli sunt maiores nobis ordine naturae. Ergo non mittuntur in ministerium nostrum. Objection 4. Further, to minister is the part of an inferior; hence it is written (Luke 22:27): "Which is the greater, he that sitteth at table, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at table?" But the angels are naturally greater than we are. Therefore they are not sent to administer to us.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Exod. XXIII, ecce ego mittam Angelum meum, qui praecedat te. On the contrary, It is written (Exodus 23:20): "Behold I will send My angels who shall go before thee."
Iª q. 112 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod ex supra dictis manifestum esse potest quod aliqui Angeli in ministerium mittuntur a Deo. Ut enim supra dictum est, cum de missione divinarum personarum ageretur, ille mitti dicitur, qui aliquo modo ab alio procedit, ut incipiat esse ubi prius non erat, vel ubi prius erat, per alium modum. Filius enim aut spiritus sanctus mitti dicitur, ut a patre procedens per originem; et incipit esse novo modo, idest per gratiam vel per naturam assumptam, ubi prius erat per deitatis praesentiam. Dei enim proprium est ubique esse, quia cum sit universale agens, eius virtus attingit omnia entia; unde est in omnibus rebus, ut supra dictum est. Virtus autem Angeli, cum sit particulare agens, non attingit totum universum; sed sic attingit unum, quod non attingit aliud. Et ideo ita est hic, quod non alibi. Manifestum est autem per supra dicta, quod creatura corporalis per Angelos administratur. Cum igitur aliquid est fiendum per aliquem Angelum circa aliquam creaturam corpoream, de novo applicatur Angelus illi corpori sua virtute; et sic Angelus de novo incipit ibi esse. Et hoc totum procedit ex imperio divino. Unde sequitur, secundum praemissa, quod Angelus a Deo mittatur. Sed actio quam Angelus missus exercet, procedit a Deo sicut a primo principio, cuius nutu et auctoritate Angeli operantur; et in Deum reducitur sicut in ultimum finem. Et hoc facit rationem ministri, nam minister est sicut instrumentum intelligens; instrumentum autem ab alio movetur, et eius actio ad aliud ordinatur. Unde actiones Angelorum ministeria vocantur; et propter hoc dicuntur in ministerium mitti. I answer that, From what has been said above (108, 6), it may be shown that some angels are sent in ministry by God. For, as we have already stated (43, 1), in treating of the mission of the Divine Persons, he is said to be sent who in any way proceeds from another so as to begin to be where he was not, or to be in another way, where he already was. Thus the Son, or the Holy Ghost is said to be sent as proceeding from the Father by origin; and begins to be in a new way, by grace or by the nature assumed, where He was before by the presence of His Godhead; for it belongs to God to be present everywhere, because, since He is the universal agent, His power reaches to all being, and hence He exists in all things (8, 1). An angel's power, however, as a particular agent, does not reach to the whole universe, but reaches to one thing in such a way as not to reach another; and so he is "here" in such a manner as not to be "there." But it is clear from what was above stated (110, 1), that the corporeal creature is governed by the angels. Hence, whenever an angel has to perform any work concerning a corporeal creature, the angel applies himself anew to that body by his power; and in that way begins to be there afresh. Now all this takes place by Divine command. Hence it follows that an angel is sent by God. Yet the action performed by the angel who is sent, proceeds from God as from its first principle, at Whose nod and by Whose authority the angels work; and is reduced to God as to its last end. Now this is what is meant by a minister: for a minister is an intelligent instrument; while an instrument is moved by another, and its action is ordered to another. Hence angels' actions are called 'ministries'; and for this reason they are said to be sent in ministry.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod aliqua operatio dupliciter dicitur intellectualis. Uno modo, quasi in ipso intellectu consistens, ut contemplatio. Et talis operatio non determinat sibi locum, immo, ut Augustinus dicit IV de Trin., etiam nos, secundum quod aliquid aeternum mente sapimus, non in hoc mundo sumus. Alio modo dicitur aliqua actio intellectualis, quia est ab aliquo intellectu regulata et imperata. Et sic manifestum est quod operationes intellectuales interdum determinant sibi loca. Reply to Objection 1. An operation can be intellectual in two ways. In one way, as dwelling in the intellect itself, as contemplation; such an operation does not demand to occupy a place; indeed, as Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20): "Even we ourselves as mentally tasting something eternal, are not in this world." In another sense an action is said to be intellectual because it is regulated and commanded by some intellect; in that sense the intellectual operations evidently have sometimes a determinate place.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod caelum Empyreum pertinet ad dignitatem Angeli secundum congruentiam quandam, quia congruum est ut supremum corporum naturae quae est supra omnia corpora, attribuatur. Non tamen Angelus aliquid dignitatis accipit a caelo Empyreo. Et ideo quando actu non est in caelo Empyreo, nihil eius dignitati subtrahitur, sicut nec regi, quando non actu sedet in regali solio, quod congruit eius dignitati. Reply to Objection 2. The empyrean heaven belongs to the angelic dignity by way of congruity; forasmuch as it is congruous that the higher body should be attributed to that nature which occupies a rank above bodies. Yet an angel does not derive his dignity from the empyrean heaven; so when he is not actually in the empyrean heaven, nothing of his dignity is lost, as neither does a king lessen his dignity when not actually sitting on his regal throne, which suits his dignity.
Iª q. 112 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod in nobis exterior occupatio puritatem contemplationis impedit, quia actioni insistimus secundum sensitivas vires, quarum actiones cum intenduntur, retardantur actiones intellectivae virtutis. Sed Angelus per solam intellectualem operationem regulat suas actiones exteriores. Unde actiones exteriores in nullo impediunt eius contemplationem, quia duarum actionum quarum una est regula et ratio alterius, una non impedit, sed iuvat aliam. Unde Gregorius dicit, in II Moral., quod Angeli non sic foris exeunt, ut internae contemplationis gaudiis priventur. Reply to Objection 3. In ourselves the purity of contemplation is obscured by exterior occupation; because we give ourselves to action through the sensitive faculties, the action of which when intense impedes the action of the intellectual powers. An angel, on the contrary, regulates his exterior actions by intellectual operation alone. Hence it follows that his external occupations in no respect impede his contemplation; because given two actions, one of which is the rule and the reason of the other, one does not hinder but helps the other. Wherefore Gregory says (Moral. ii) that "the angels do not go abroad in such a manner as to lose the delights of inward contemplation."
Iª q. 112 a. 1 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod Angeli in suis actionibus exterioribus ministrant principaliter Deo, et secundario nobis. Non quia nos sumus superiores eis, simpliciter loquendo, sed quilibet homo vel Angelus, inquantum adhaerendo Deo fit unus spiritus cum Deo, est superior omni creatura. Unde apostolus, ad Philipp. II, dicit, superiores sibi invicem arbitrantes. Reply to Objection 4. In their external actions the angels chiefly minister to God, and secondarily to us; not because we are superior to them, absolutely speaking, but because, since every man or angel by cleaving to God is made one spirit with God, he is thereby superior to every creature. Hence the Apostle says (Philippians 2:3): "Esteeming others better than themselves."
Iª q. 112 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod omnes Angeli in ministerium mittantur. Dicit enim apostolus, ad Heb. I, omnes sunt administratorii spiritus, in ministerium missi. Objection 1. It would seem that all the angels are sent in ministry. For the Apostle says (Hebrews 1:14): "All are ministering spirits, sent to minister" [Vulg. 'Are they not all . . . ?'].
Iª q. 112 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, inter ordines supremus est ordo Seraphim, ut ex supra dictis patet. Sed Seraphim est missus ad purgandum labia prophetae, ut habetur Isaiae VI. Ergo multo magis inferiores Angeli mittuntur. Objection 2. Further, among the orders, the highest is that of the Seraphim, as stated above (108, 6). But a Seraph was sent to purify the lips of the prophet (Isaiah 6:6-7). Therefore much more are the inferior orders sent.
Iª q. 112 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, divinae personae in infinitum excedunt omnes ordines Angelorum. Sed divinae personae mittuntur, ut supra dictum est. Ergo multo magis quicumque supremi Angeli. Objection 3. Further, the Divine Persons infinitely excel all the angelic orders. But the Divine Persons are sent. Therefore much more are even the highest angels sent.
Iª q. 112 a. 2 arg. 4 Praeterea, si superiores Angeli non mittuntur ad exterius ministerium, hoc non est nisi quia superiores Angeli exequuntur divina ministeria per inferiores. Sed cum omnes Angeli sint inaequales, ut supra dictum est, quilibet Angelus habet inferiorem Angelum, praeter ultimum. Ergo unus Angelus solus ministraret in ministerium missus. Quod est contra id quod dicitur Daniel VII, millia millium ministrabant ei. Objection 4. Further, if the superior angels are not sent to the external ministries, this can only be because the superior angels execute the Divine ministries by means of the inferior angels. But as all the angels are unequal, as stated above (50, 4), each angel has an angel inferior to himself except the last one. Therefore only the last angel would be sent in ministry; which contradicts the words, "Thousands of thousands ministered to Him" (Daniel 7:10).
Iª q. 112 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod Gregorius dicit, referens sententiam Dionysii, superiora agmina usum exterioris ministerii nequaquam habent. On the contrary, Gregory says (Hom. xxxiv in Evang.), quoting the statement of Dionysius (Coel. Hier. xiii), that "the higher ranks fulfil no exterior service."
Iª q. 112 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut ex supra dictis patet, hoc habet ordo divinae providentiae, non solum in Angelis, sed etiam in toto universo, quod inferiora per superiora administrantur, sed ab hoc ordine in rebus corporalibus aliquando ex divina dispensatione receditur, propter altiorem ordinem, secundum scilicet quod expedit ad gratiae manifestationem. Quod enim caecus natus fuit illuminatus, quod Lazarus fuit suscitatus, immediate a Deo factum est, absque aliqua actione caelestium corporum. Sed et Angeli boni et mali possunt aliquid in istis corporibus operari praeter actionem caelestium corporum, condensando nubes in pluvias, et aliqua huiusmodi faciendo. Neque alicui debet esse dubium quin Deus immediate hominibus aliqua revelare posset, non mediantibus Angelis; et superiores Angeli, non mediantibus inferioribus. Et secundum hanc considerationem, quidam dixerunt quod, secundum communem legem, superiores non mittuntur, sed inferiores tantum; sed ex aliqua dispensatione divina, interdum etiam superiores mittuntur. Sed hoc non videtur rationabile. Quia ordo angelicus attenditur secundum dona gratiarum. Ordo autem gratiae non habet alium superiorem ordinem, propter quem praetermitti debeat, sicut praetermittitur ordo naturae propter ordinem gratiae. Considerandum est etiam quod ordo naturae in operationibus miraculorum praetermittitur, propter fidei confirmationem. Ad quam nihil valeret, si praetermitteretur ordo angelicus, quia hoc a nobis percipi non posset. Nihil etiam est ita magnum in ministeriis divinis, quod per inferiores ordines exerceri non possit. Unde Gregorius dicit quod qui summa annuntiant, Archangeli vocantur. Hinc est quod ad virginem Mariam Gabriel Archangelus mittitur. Quod tamen fuit summum inter omnia divina ministeria, ut ibidem subditur. Et ideo simpliciter dicendum est, cum Dionysio, quod superiores Angeli nunquam ad exterius ministerium mittuntur. I answer that, As appears from what has been said above (106, 3; 110, 1), the order of Divine Providence has so disposed not only among the angels, but also in the whole universe, that inferior things are administered by the superior. But the Divine dispensation, however, this order is sometimes departed from as regards corporeal things, for the sake of a higher order, that is, according as it is suitable for the manifestation of grace. That the man born blind was enlightened, that Lazarus was raised from the dead, was accomplished immediately by God without the action of the heavenly bodies. Moreover both good and bad angels can work some effect in these bodies independently of the heavenly bodies, by the condensation of the clouds to rain, and by producing some such effects. Nor can anyone doubt that God can immediately reveal things to men without the help of the angels, and the superior angels without the inferior. From this standpoint some have said that according to the general law the superior angels are not sent, but only the inferior; yet that sometimes, by Divine dispensation, the superior angels also are sent. It may also be said that the Apostle wishes to prove that Christ is greater than the angels who were chosen as the messengers of the law; in order that He might show the excellence of the new over the old law. Hence there is no need to apply this to any other angels besides those who were sent to give the law. This, however, does not seem to be reasonable, because order among the angels is according to the gifts of grace. Now the order of grace has no order above itself for the sake of which it should be passed over; as the order of nature is passed over for the sake of grace. It must likewise be observed that the order of nature in the working of miracles is passed over for the confirmation of faith; whcih purpose would receive no additional support if the angelic order were passed over, since this could not be perceived by us. Furthermore, there is nothing in the divine ministries above the capacity of the inferior orders. Hence Gregory says that those who announce the highest things are called archangels. For this reason the archangel Gabriel was sent to the Virgin Mary; and yet, as he says further on, this was the greatest of all the divine ministries. Thus with Dionysius we must say, without any qualification, that the superior angels are never sent to the external ministry.
Iª q. 112 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut in missionibus divinarum personarum aliqua est visibilis, quae attenditur secundum creaturam corpoream; aliqua invisibilis, quae fit secundum spiritualem effectum, ita in missionibus Angelorum aliqua dicitur exterior, quae scilicet est ad aliquod ministerium circa corporalia exhibendum, et secundum hanc missionem non omnes mittuntur; alia est interior, secundum intellectuales effectus, prout scilicet unus Angelus illuminat alium, et sic omnes Angeli mittuntur. Vel aliter dicendum quod apostolus inducit illud ad probandum quod Christus sit maior Angelis per quos data est lex; ut sic ostendat excellentiam novae legis ad veterem. Unde non oportet quod intelligatur nisi de Angelis ministerii, per quos data est lex. Reply to Objection 1. As in the missions of the divine Persons there is a visible mission, in regard to the corporeal creature, and an invisible mission, in regard to a spiritual effect, so likewise in the angelic missions, there is an external mission, in respect of some administration of corporeal things (and on such a mission not all the angels are sent), and an interior mission, in respect of some intellectual effect, according as one angel illumines another (and in this way all the angels are sent). It may also be said that the Apostle wishes to prove that Christ is greater than the angels who were chosen as the messengers of the law, in order that He might show the excellence of the new over the old law. Hence there is no need to apply this to any other angels besides those who were sent to give the law.
Iª q. 112 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum, secundum Dionysium, quod ille Angelus qui missus est ad purgandum labia prophetae, fuit de inferioribus Angelis; sed dictus est Seraphim, idest incendens, aequivoce, propter hoc quod venerat ad incendendum labia prophetae. Vel dicendum quod superiores Angeli communicant propria dona, a quibus denominantur, mediantibus inferioribus Angelis. Sic igitur unus de Seraphim dictus est purgasse incendio labia prophetae, non quia hoc ipse immediate fecerit, sed quia inferior Angelus virtute eius hoc fecit. Sicut Papa dicitur absolvere aliquem, etiam si per alium officium absolutionis impendat. Reply to Objection 2. According to Dionysius (Coel. Hier. xiii), the angel who was sent to purify the prophet's lips was one of the inferior order; but was called a "Seraph," that is, "kindling " in an equivocal sense, because he came to "kindle" the lips of the prophet. It may also be said that the superior angels communicate their own proper gifts whereby they are denominated, through the ministry of the inferior angels. Thus one of the Seraphim is described as purifying by fire the prophet's lips, not as if he did so immediately, but because an inferior angel did so by his power; as the Pope is said to absolve a man when he gives absolution by means of someone else.
Iª q. 112 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod divinae personae non mittuntur in ministerium, sed aequivoce mitti dicuntur; ut ex praedictis patet. Reply to Objection 3. The Divine Persons are not sent in ministry, but are said to be sent in an equivocal sense, as appears from what has been said (43, 1).
Iª q. 112 a. 2 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod in divinis ministeriis est multiplex gradus. Unde nihil prohibet etiam inaequales Angelos immediate ad ministeria mitti; ita tamen quod superiores mittantur ad altiora ministeria, inferiores vero ad inferiora. Reply to Objection 4. A manifold grade exists in the Divine ministries. Hence there is nothing to prevent angels though unequal from being sent immediately in ministry, in such a manner however that the superior are sent to the higher ministries, and the lower to the inferior ministries.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod etiam Angeli qui mittuntur, assistant. Dicit enim Gregorius, in homilia, et mittuntur igitur Angeli, et assistunt, quia etsi circumscriptus est angelicus spiritus, summus tamen spiritus ipse, qui Deus est, circumscriptus non est. Objection 1. It would seem that the angels who are sent also assist. For Gregory says (Hom. xxxiv in Evang.): "So the angels are sent, and assist; for, though the angelic spirit is limited, yet the supreme Spirit, God, is not limited."
Iª q. 112 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, Angelus Tobiae in ministerium missus fuit. Sed tamen ipse dixit, ego sum Raphael Angelus, unus ex septem qui adstamus ante Deum, ut habetur Tobiae XII. Ergo Angeli qui mittuntur, assistunt. Objection 2. Further, the angel was sent to administer to Tobias. Yet he said, "I am the angel Raphael, one of the seven who stand before the Lord" (Tobit 12:15). Therefore the angels who are sent, assist.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, quilibet Angelus beatus propinquior est Deo quam Satan. Sed Satan assistit Deo; secundum quod dicitur Iob I, cum assisterent filii Dei coram domino, affuit inter eos et Satan. Ergo multo magis Angeli qui mittuntur in ministerium, assistunt. Objection 3. Further, every holy angel is nearer to God than Satan is. Yet Satan assisted God, according to Job 1:6: "When the sons of God came to stand before the Lord, Satan also was present among them." Therefore much more do the angels, who are sent to minister, assist.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 arg. 4 Praeterea, si inferiores Angeli non assistunt, hoc non est nisi quia non immediate, sed per superiores Angelos divinas illuminationes recipiunt. Sed quilibet Angelus per superiorem divinas illuminationes suscipit, excepto eo qui est inter omnes supremus. Ergo solus supremus Angelus assisteret. Quod est contra illud quod habetur Dan. VII, decies millies centena millia assistebant ei. Ergo etiam illi qui ministrant, assistunt. Objection 4. Further, if the inferior angels do not assist, the reason is because they receive the Divine enlightenment, not immediately, but through the superior angels. But every angel receives the Divine enlightenment from a superior, except the one who is highest of all. Therefore only the highest angel would assist; which is contrary to the text of Daniel 7:10: "Ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before Him." Therefore the angels who are sent also assist.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod Gregorius dicit, XVII Moral., super illud Iob, numquid est numerus militum eius? Assistunt, inquit, illae potestates, quae ad quaedam hominibus nuntianda non exeunt. Ergo illi qui in ministerium mittuntur, non assistunt. On the contrary, Gregory says, on Job 25:3: "Is there any numbering of His soldiers?" (Moral. xvii): "Those powers assist, who do not go forth as messengers to men." Therefore those who are sent in ministry do not assist.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod Angeli introducuntur assistentes et administrantes, ad similitudinem eorum qui alicui regi famulantur. Quorum aliqui semper ei assistunt, et eius praecepta immediate audiunt. Alii vero sunt, ad quos praecepta regalia per assistentes nuntiantur, sicut illi qui administrationi civitatum praeficiuntur, et hi dicuntur ministrantes, sed non assistentes. Considerandum est ergo quod omnes Angeli divinam essentiam immediate vident, et quantum ad hoc, omnes etiam qui ministrant, assistere dicuntur. Unde Gregorius dicit in II Moral., quod semper assistere, aut videre faciem patris possunt, qui ad ministerium exterius mittuntur pro nostra salute. Sed non omnes Angeli secreta divinorum mysteriorum in ipsa claritate divinae essentiae percipere possunt; sed soli superiores, per quos inferioribus denuntiantur. Et secundum hoc, soli superiores, qui sunt primae hierarchiae, assistere dicuntur, cuius proprium dicit esse Dionysius immediate a Deo illuminari. I answer that, The angels are spoken of as "assisting" and "administering," after the likeness of those who attend upon a king; some of whom ever wait upon him, and hear his commands immediately; while others there are to whom the royal commands are conveyed by those who are in attendance--for instance, those who are placed at the head of the administration of various cities; these are said to administer, not to assist. We must therefore observe that all the angels gaze upon the Divine Essence immediately; in regard to which all, even those who minister, are said to assist. Hence Gregory says (Moral. ii) that "those who are sent on the external ministry of our salvation can always assist and see the face of the Father." Yet not all the angels can perceive the secrets of the Divine mysteries in the clearness itself of the Divine Essence; but only the superior angels who announce them to the inferior: and in that respect only the superior angels belonging to the highest hierarchy are said to assist, whose special prerogative it is to be enlightened immediately by God.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 ad 1 Et per hoc patet solutio ad primum et secundum, quae procedunt de primo modo assistendi. From this may be deduced the reply to the first and second objections, which are based on the first mode of assisting.
Iª q. 112 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod Satan non dicitur astitisse, sed inter assistentes affuisse describitur, quia, ut Gregorius dicit II Moral., etsi beatitudinem perdidit, naturam tamen Angelis similem non amisit. Reply to Objection 3. Satan is not described as having assisted, but as present among the assistants; for, as Gregory says (Moral. ii), "though he has lost beatitude, still he has retained a nature like to the angels."
Iª q. 112 a. 3 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod omnes assistentes aliqua immediate vident in claritate divinae essentiae; et ideo totius primae hierarchiae proprium esse dicitur immediate illuminari a Deo. Sed superiores eorum plura percipiunt quam inferiores, de quibus illuminant alios, sicut etiam inter eos qui assistunt regi, plura scit de secretis regis unus quam alius. Reply to Objection 4. All the assistants see some things immediately in the glory of the Divine Essence; and so it may be said that it is the prerogative of the whole of the highest hierarchy to be immediately enlightened by God; while the higher ones among them see more than is seen by the inferior; some of whom enlighten others: as also among those who assist the king, one knows more of the king's secrets than another.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod Angeli secundae hierarchiae omnes mittantur. Angeli enim omnes vel assistunt vel ministrant; secundum quod habetur Dan. VII. Sed Angeli secundae hierarchiae non assistunt, illuminantur enim per Angelos primae hierarchiae, sicut dicit Dionysius VIII cap. Cael. Hier. Omnes ergo Angeli secundae hierarchiae in ministerium mittuntur. Objection 1. It would seem that all the angels of the second hierarchy are sent. For all the angels either assist, or minister, according to Daniel 7:10. But the angels of the second hierarchy do not assist; for they are enlightened by the angels of the first hierarchy, as Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. viii). Therefore all the angels of the second hierarchy are sent in ministry.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, Gregorius dicit, XVII Moral., quod plures sunt qui ministrant, quam qui assistunt. Sed hoc non esset, si Angeli secundae hierarchiae in ministerium non mitterentur. Ergo omnes Angeli secundae hierarchiae in ministerium mittuntur. Objection 2. Further, Gregory says (Moral. xvii) that "there are more who minister than who assist." This would not be the case if the angels of the second hierarchy were not sent in ministry. Therefore all the angels of the second hierarchy are sent to minister.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est quod Dionysius dicit, quod dominationes sunt maiores omni subiectione. Sed mitti in ministerium, ad subiectionem pertinet. Ergo dominationes in ministerium non mittuntur. On the contrary, Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. viii) that the "Dominations are above all subjection." But to be sent implies subjection. Therefore the dominations are not sent to minister.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, mitti ad exterius ministerium proprie convenit Angelo, secundum quod ex divino imperio operatur circa aliquam creaturam corporalem; quod quidem pertinet ad executionem divini ministerii. Proprietates autem Angelorum ex eorum nominibus manifestantur, ut Dionysius dicit VII cap. Cael. Hier. Et ideo Angeli illorum ordinum ad exterius ministerium mittuntur, ex quorum nominibus aliqua executio datur intelligi. In nomine autem dominationum non importatur aliqua executio, sed sola dispositio et imperium de exequendis. Sed in nominibus inferiorum ordinum intelligitur aliqua executio, nam Angeli et Archangeli denominantur a denuntiando; virtutes et potestates dicuntur per respectum ad aliquem actum; principis etiam est, ut Gregorius dicit, inter alios operantes priorem existere. Unde ad hos quinque ordines pertinet in exterius ministerium mitti, non autem ad quatuor superiores. I answer that, As above stated (1), to be sent to external ministry properly belongs to an angel according as he acts by Divine command in respect of any corporeal creature; which is part of the execution of the Divine ministry. Now the angelic properties are manifested by their names, as Dionysius says (Coel. Hier. vii); and therefore the angels of those orders are sent to external ministry whose names signify some kind of administration. But the name "dominations" does not signify any such administration, but only disposition and command in administering. On the other hand, the names of the inferior orders imply administration, for the "Angels" and "Archangels" are so called from "announcing"; the "Virtues" and "Powers" are so called in respect of some act; and it is right that the "Prince," according to what Gregory says (Hom. xxxiv in Evang.), "be first among the workers." Hence it belongs to these five orders to be sent to external ministry; not to the four superior orders.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod dominationes computantur quidem inter Angelos ministrantes, non sicut exequentes ministerium, sed sicut disponentes et mandantes quid per alios fieri debeat. Sicut architectores in artificiis nihil manu operantur, sed solum disponunt et praecipiunt quid alii debeant operari. Reply to Objection 1. The Dominations are reckoned among the ministering angels, not as exercising but as disposing and commanding what is to be done by others; thus an architect does not put his hands to the production of his art, but only disposes and orders what others are to do.
Iª q. 112 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod de numero assistentium et ministrantium duplex ratio haberi potest. Gregorius enim dicit plures esse ministrantes quam assistentes. Intelligit enim quod dicitur, millia millium ministrabant ei, non esse dictum multiplicative, sed partitive; ac si diceretur, millia de numero millium. Et sic ministrantium numerus ponitur indefinitus, ad significandum excessum; assistentium vero finitus, cum subditur, et decies millies centena millia assistebant ei. Et hoc procedit secundum rationem Platonicorum, qui dicebant quod quanto aliqua sunt uni primo principio propinquiora, tanto sunt minoris multitudinis, sicut quanto numerus est propinquior unitati, tanto est multitudine minor. Et haec opinio salvatur quantum ad numerum ordinum, dum sex ministrant, et tres assistunt. Sed Dionysius ponit, XIV cap. Cael. Hier., quod multitudo Angelorum transcendit omnem materialem multitudinem; ut scilicet, sicut corpora superiora transcendunt corpora inferiora magnitudine quasi in immensum, ita superiores naturae incorporeae transcendunt multitudine omnes naturas corporeas; quia quod est melius, est magis a Deo intentum et multiplicatum. Et secundum hoc, cum assistentes sint superiores ministrantibus, plures erunt assistentes quam ministrantes. Unde secundum hoc, millia millium legitur multiplicativae, ac si diceretur, millies millia. Et quia decies centum sunt mille, si diceretur, decies centena millia, daretur intelligi quod tot essent assistentes, quot ministrantes, sed quia dicitur, decies millies centena millia, multo plures dicuntur esse assistentes quam ministrantes. Nec tamen hoc pro tanto dicitur, quia tantus solum sit Angelorum numerus, sed multo maior, quia omnem materialem multitudinem excedit. Quod significatur per multiplicationem maximorum numerorum supra seipsos, scilicet denarii, centenarii et millenarii; ut Dionysius ibidem dicit. Reply to Objection 2. A twofold reason may be given in assigning the number of the assisting and ministering angels. For Gregory says that those who minister are more numerous than those who assist; because he takes the words (Daniel 7:10) "thousands of thousands ministered to Him," not in a multiple but in a partitive sense, to mean "thousands out of thousands"; thus the number of those who minister is indefinite, and signifies excess; while the number of assistants is finite as in the words added, "and ten thousand times a hundred thousand assisted Him." This explanation rests on the opinion of the Platonists, who said that the nearer things are to the one first principle, the smaller they are in number; as the nearer a number is to unity, the lesser it is than multitude. This opinion is verified as regards the number of orders, as six administer and three assist. Dionysius, however, (Coel. Hier. xiv) declares that the multitude of angels surpasses all the multitude of material things; so that, as the superior bodies exceed the inferior in magnitude to an immeasurable degree, so the superior incorporeal natures surpass all corporeal natures in multitude; because whatever is better is more intended and more multiplied by God. Hence, as the assistants are superior to the ministers there will be more assistants than ministers. In this way, the words "thousands of thousands" are taken by way of multiplication, to signify "a thousand times a thousand." And because ten times a hundred is a thousand, if it were said "ten times a hundred thousand" it would mean that there are as many assistants as ministers: but since it is written "ten thousand times a hundred thousand," we are given to understand that the assistants are much more numerous than the ministers. Nor is this said to signify that this is the precise number of angels, but rather that it is much greater, in that it exceeds all material multitude. This is signified by the multiplication together of all the greatest numbers, namely ten, a hundred, and a thousand, as Dionysius remarks in the same passage.

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