Antonius Andreas

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Antonius Andreae OFM (Antonius Scotellus, Antonius Andreas de Aragona, Antoine André, Antoni Andreu, aka "Scotulus"; "Scotellus'"; Doctor fundatissimus".)

Born ca. 1280 in Catalonia, probably studied in Paris in the last years of Duns Scotus's life, 1304-1307, while a Master at Paris. Died ca. 1333. Editor and promoter of Scotus's work.



Tauste, where Antonius may have been born

We know as little about the life of Antonius Andreae as we do of Scotus’s own life. The details given here are taken from Gensler’s brief biography[1]. Antonius was born about 1280, in the town of Tauste, near Zaragoza in what was then Aragon . He probably joined the Franciscans in about 1295, then studied at the new university in Lerida between 1296 and 1299 and afterwards in Paris from 1300 until either 1304, if he he took the full course of Arts there, or until 1302, if he already had the baccalaureate.

Gensler suggests that the final decision to send him to Paris was taken by the then Father General of Friars Minor, Gonsalvus de Balboa, who was the mentor of Scotus[2]. Scotus was lecturing on the Sentences in Paris between 1304 and October 1307.

Since the course of theological studies at Paris required six years (four years for the baccalaureate and two more for the master’s degree) Antonius probably finished his studies in 1309, although the last date he is recorded as being in Paris (according to Gensler) in 1307. Around 1312 he was in Catalonia teaching philosophy of nature, probably in the convent of Monzón (Lat. Montebono), where he spent most of the rest of his life.


See Antonius Andreas (work).


His works, mostly simplified but broadly faithful versions of Scotus’s work, popularised the doctrines of Scotus across Europe in the 14th and especially the 15th century. Publishers of early printed books were hungry for material. According to Gensler, the number of printed editions of Scotus's works reached its peak around the turn of the 15th and 16th century.

Acknowledgement of Scotus

In at least three places in his redactions, Antonius acknowledges the influence of Scotus. However, their wording ("I am following the doctrine of the subtle Doctor") is misleading, given that these are redactions, rather than summaries written in his own words. And in the third place below, his redaction is of a work by Thomas Aquinas, not Scotus. See the Expositio on the Metaphysics.

Latin English
Attende igitur lector qui legis, quod siquid benedictum est in quaestionibus supradictis ab arte doctrinae Scoticae processit, cuius vestigia quantum potui et quantum ipsum capio sum secutus[3] Reader, please pay attention to what you read, because whatever is of benefit in the questions above comes from the art of the Scotistic doctrine, whose steps I followed as closely as I could.
Haec de dictis magistri fratris Ioannis Duns, natione Scoti, sedentis super cathedram magistralem, ut potui, colligens, in unum compilavi[4]. These are from the sayings/statements of master brother John Duns, of the Scottish nation, occupying the master’s chair, as far as I have been able to collect them into one [work].
Volo autem scire omnes litteram istam legentes, quod tam sententiando quam notando secutus sum doctrinam illius subtilissimi et excellentissimi Doctoris, cuius fama et memoria in benedictione est, utpote qui sua sacra et profunda doctrina totum orbem adimplevit et facit resonare, scilicet Magistri Ioannis Duns, qui fuit natione Scotus, Religione Minor: unde, et verba eius in isto scripto frequenter reperies,sicut ab ipso tradita scripturae reperiuntur. Et idcirco si aliquid bene dictum in isto opere reperies, scias a fonte et profunditate suae doctrinae, ac scientiae emanasse. Si quid vero minus bene dictum, aut eius doctrinae quomodolibet contradicens, meae imperitiae adscribatur. Nam ego quantum sapio quantumque capio, quidquid est hic quod ipse exprimere intendebat, pes meus eius vestigia secutus est; et ideo si aliquid aliud repugnans sibi inveniatur quandoque nunc pro tunc revoco, paratus libenti animo emendare[5]. But I wish everyone reading this text to know that in my views, as well as in my writing I am following the doctrine of the subtle Doctor, whose fame and memory is blessed, inasmuch as he, by his sacred and profound doctrine, has filled and made resound the whole world, namely John Duns Scotus, who was of the Scottish nation, and of the Minorite religion. Hence you will frequently find his words in this work, just as the words of the scriptures are found handed down by him. And for that reason if you find something well said in this work, you will know that it emanates from the profundity of his doctrine and of his knowledge. But if you find something less well said, or in any way contradicting his doctrine, put it down to my inexperience. For I , as far as I understand and grasp [his doctrine], whatever is here that he intended to express, my feet are following in his footsteps. And so if you find anything else repugnant to [his doctrine], I will change it 'now for then', prepared to make changes by a willing spirit.

See also



  1. M. Gensler, “The making of a doctor dulcifluus. Antonius Andreae and his position in [the] formation of scotism”, Anuari de la Societat Catalana de Filosofia 1996
  2. J. Carreras y Artau, “Notas sobre el escotismo medieval en la provincia franciscana de Aragón”, w: Antonianum XL (1965), p. 470-471
  3. A. Andreae, Quaestiones de tribus principiis rerum naturalium, Venice 1489, f. 26vb
  4. Questions on Aristotle's Categories, Pamplona, Biblioteca de la Catedral, ms. 6, fol. 87rb, cited in P. Sagues Azcona “Apuntes para la historia del escotismo en Espana en el siglo XIV”, De doctrina Ioannis Scoti, Romae 1968 3-19, esp. p.4.
  5. Dilucidissima expositio in duodecim libros metaphysicorum Aristotelis, in Vives vol. 7, p.600).
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0 1280 1315 Spain 1333 Paris? France?

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