SUMMA THEOLOGIAE IIa LXVIII-LXX

Index

Question 68.1 The gifts of the Holy Ghost
Question 68.2
Question 68.3
Question 68.4
Question 68.5
Question 68.6
Question 68.7
Question 68.8

Question 69.1 The beatitudes of the Holy Ghost
Question 69.2
Question 69.3
Question 69.4

Question 70.1 The fruits of the Holy Ghost
Question 70.2
Question 70.3
Question 70.4

LatinEnglish
q. 68 pr. Consequenter considerandum est de donis. Et circa hoc quaeruntur octo. Primo, utrum dona differant a virtutibus. Secundo, de necessitate donorum. Tertio, utrum dona sint habitus. Quarto, quae, et quot sint. Quinto, utrum dona sint connexa. Sexto, utrum maneant in patria. Septimo, de comparatione eorum ad invicem. Octavo, de comparatione eorum ad virtutes. Question 68. The gifts Do the Gifts differ from the virtues? The necessity of the Gifts Are the Gifts habits? Which, and how many are they? Are the Gifts connected? Do they remain in heaven? Their comparison with one another Their comparison with the virtues
q. 68 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dona non distinguantur a virtutibus. Dicit enim Gregorius, in I Moral., exponens illud Iob, nati sunt ei septem filii, septem nobis nascuntur filii, cum per conceptionem bonae cogitationis, sancti spiritus septem in nobis virtutes oriuntur. Et inducit illud quod habetur Isaiae XI, requiescet super eum spiritus intellectus etc., ubi enumerantur septem spiritus sancti dona. Ergo septem dona spiritus sancti sunt virtutes. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts do not differ from the virtues. For Gregory commenting on Job 1:2, "There were born to him seven sons," says (Moral. i, 12): "Seven sons were born to us, when through the conception of heavenly thought, the seven virtues of the Holy Ghost take birth in us": and he quotes the words of Isaiah 11:2-3: "And the Spirit . . . of understanding . . . shall rest upon him," etc. where the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are enumerated. Therefore the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are virtues.
q. 68 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in libro de Quaestionib. Evang., exponens illud quod habetur Matth. XII, tunc vadit, et assumit septem alios spiritus etc., septem vitia sunt contraria septem virtutibus spiritus sancti, idest septem donis. Sunt autem septem vitia contraria virtutibus communiter dictis. Ergo dona non distinguuntur a virtutibus communiter dictis. Objection 2. Further, Augustine commenting on Matthew 12:45, "Then he goeth and taketh with him seven other spirits," etc., says (De Quaest. Evang. i, qu. 8): "The seven vices are opposed to the seven virtues of the Holy Ghost," i.e. to the seven gifts. Now the seven vices are opposed to the seven virtues, commonly so called. Therefore the gifts do not differ from the virtues commonly so called.
q. 68 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, quorum est definitio eadem, ipsa quoque sunt eadem. Sed definitio virtutis convenit donis, unumquodque enim donum est bona qualitas mentis qua recte vivitur, et cetera. Similiter definitio doni convenit virtutibus infusis, est enim donum datio irreddibilis, secundum philosophum. Ergo virtutes et dona non distinguuntur. Objection 3. Further, things whose definitions are the same, are themselves the same. But the definition of virtue applies to the gifts; for each gift is "a good quality of the mind, whereby we lead a good life," etc. [Cf. 55, 4]. Likewise the definition of a gift can apply to the infused virtues: for a gift is "an unreturnable giving," according to the Philosopher (Topic. iv, 4). Therefore the virtues and gifts do not differ from one another.
q. 68 a. 1 arg. 4 Praeterea, plura eorum quae enumerantur inter dona, sunt virtutes. Nam sicut supra dictum est, sapientia et intellectus et scientia sunt virtutes intellectuales; consilium autem ad prudentiam pertinet; pietas autem species est iustitiae; fortitudo autem quaedam virtus est moralis. Ergo videtur quod virtutes non distinguantur a donis. Objection 4. Several of the things mentioned among the gifts, are virtues: for, as stated above (Question 57, Article 2), wisdom, understanding, and knowledge are intellectual virtues, counsel pertains to prudence, piety to a kind of justice, and fortitude is a moral virtue. Therefore it seems that the gifts do not differ from the virtues.
q. 68 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod Gregorius, I Moral., distinguit septem dona, quae dicit significari per septem filios Iob, a tribus virtutibus theologicis, quas dicit significari per tres filias Iob. Et in II Moral., distinguit eadem septem dona a quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus, quae dicit significari per quatuor angulos domus. On the contrary, Gregory (Moral. i, 12) distinguishes seven gifts, which he states to be denoted by the seven sons of Job, from the three theological virtues, which, he says, are signified by Job's three daughters. He also distinguishes (Moral. ii, 26) the same seven gifts from the four cardinal virtues, which he says were signified by the four corners of the house.
q. 68 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, si loquamur de dono et virtute secundum nominis rationem, sic nullam oppositionem habent ad invicem. Nam ratio virtutis sumitur secundum quod perficit hominem ad bene agendum, ut supra dictum est, ratio autem doni sumitur secundum comparationem ad causam a qua est. Nihil autem prohibet illud quod est ab alio ut donum, esse perfectivum alicuius ad bene operandum, praesertim cum supra dixerimus quod virtutes quaedam nobis sunt infusae a Deo. Unde secundum hoc, donum a virtute distingui non potest. Et ideo quidam posuerunt quod dona non essent a virtutibus distinguenda. Sed eis remanet non minor difficultas, ut scilicet rationem assignent quare quaedam virtutes dicantur dona, et non omnes; et quare aliqua computantur inter dona, quae non computantur inter virtutes, ut patet de timore. Unde alii dixerunt dona a virtutibus esse distinguenda; sed non assignaverunt convenientem distinctionis causam, quae scilicet ita communis esset virtutibus, quod nullo modo donis, aut e converso. Considerantes enim aliqui quod, inter septem dona, quatuor pertinent ad rationem, scilicet sapientia, scientia, intellectus et consilium; et tria ad vim appetitivam, scilicet fortitudo, pietas et timor; posuerunt quod dona perficiebant liberum arbitrium secundum quod est facultas rationis, virtutes vero secundum quod est facultas voluntatis, quia invenerunt duas solas virtutes in ratione vel intellectu, scilicet fidem et prudentiam, alias vero in vi appetitiva vel affectiva. Oporteret autem, si haec distinctio esset conveniens, quod omnes virtutes essent in vi appetitiva, et omnia dona in ratione. Quidam vero, considerantes quod Gregorius dicit, in II Moral., quod donum spiritus sancti, quod in mente sibi subiecta format temperantiam, prudentiam, iustitiam et fortitudinem; eandem mentem munit contra singula tentamenta per septem dona, dixerunt quod virtutes ordinantur ad bene operandum, dona vero ad resistendum tentationibus. Sed nec ista distinctio sufficit. Quia etiam virtutes tentationibus resistunt, inducentibus ad peccata, quae contrariantur virtutibus, unumquodque enim resistit naturaliter suo contrario. Quod praecipue patet de caritate, de qua dicitur Cantic. VIII, aquae multae non potuerunt extinguere caritatem. Alii vero, considerantes quod ista dona traduntur in Scriptura secundum quod fuerunt in Christo, ut patet Isaiae XI; dixerunt quod virtutes ordinantur simpliciter ad bene operandum; sed dona ordinantur ad hoc ut per ea conformemur Christo, praecipue quantum ad ea quae passus est, quia in passione eius praecipue huiusmodi dona resplenduerunt. Sed hoc etiam non videtur esse sufficiens. Quia ipse dominus praecipue nos inducit ad sui conformitatem secundum humilitatem et mansuetudinem, Matth. XI, discite a me, quia mitis sum et humilis corde; et secundum caritatem, ut Ioan. XV, diligatis invicem, sicut dilexi vos. Et hae etiam virtutes praecipue in passione Christi refulserunt. Et ideo ad distinguendum dona a virtutibus, debemus sequi modum loquendi Scripturae, in qua nobis traduntur non quidem sub nomine donorum, sed magis sub nomine spirituum, sic enim dicitur Isaiae XI, requiescet super eum spiritus sapientiae et intellectus, et cetera. Ex quibus verbis manifeste datur intelligi quod ista septem enumerantur ibi, secundum quod sunt in nobis ab inspiratione divina. Inspiratio autem significat quandam motionem ab exteriori. Est enim considerandum quod in homine est duplex principium movens, unum quidem interius, quod est ratio; aliud autem exterius, quod est Deus, ut supra dictum est; et etiam philosophus hoc dicit, in cap. de bona fortuna. Manifestum est autem quod omne quod movetur, necesse est proportionatum esse motori, et haec est perfectio mobilis inquantum est mobile, dispositio qua disponitur ad hoc quod bene moveatur a suo motore. Quanto igitur movens est altior, tanto necesse est quod mobile perfectiori dispositione ei proportionetur, sicut videmus quod perfectius oportet esse discipulum dispositum, ad hoc quod altiorem doctrinam capiat a docente. Manifestum est autem quod virtutes humanae perficiunt hominem secundum quod homo natus est moveri per rationem in his quae interius vel exterius agit. Oportet igitur inesse homini altiores perfectiones, secundum quas sit dispositus ad hoc quod divinitus moveatur. Et istae perfectiones vocantur dona, non solum quia infunduntur a Deo; sed quia secundum ea homo disponitur ut efficiatur prompte mobilis ab inspiratione divina, sicut dicitur Isaiae l, dominus aperuit mihi aurem; ego autem non contradico, retrorsum non abii. Et philosophus etiam dicit, in cap. de bona fortuna, quod his qui moventur per instinctum divinum, non expedit consiliari secundum rationem humanam, sed quod sequantur interiorem instinctum, quia moventur a meliori principio quam sit ratio humana. Et hoc est quod quidam dicunt, quod dona perficiunt hominem ad altiores actus quam sint actus virtutum. I answer that, If we speak of gift and virtue with regard to the notion conveyed by the words themselves, there is no opposition between them. Because the word "virtue" conveys the notion that it perfects man in relation to well-doing, while the word "gift" refers to the cause from which it proceeds. Now there is no reason why that which proceeds from one as a gift should not perfect another in well-doing: especially as we have already stated (63, 3) that some virtues are infused into us by God. Wherefore in this respect we cannot differentiate gifts from virtues. Consequently some have held that the gifts are not to be distinguished from the virtues. But there remains no less a difficulty for them to solve; for they must explain why some virtues are called gifts and some not; and why among the gifts there are some, fear, for instance, that are not reckoned virtues. Hence it is that others have said that the gifts should be held as being distinct from the virtues; yet they have not assigned a suitable reason for this distinction, a reason, to wit, which would apply either to all the virtues, and to none of the gifts, or vice versa. For, seeing that of the seven gifts, four belong to the reason, viz. wisdom, knowledge, understanding and counsel, and three to the appetite, viz. fortitude, piety and fear; they held that the gifts perfect the free-will according as it is a faculty of the reason, while the virtues perfect it as a faculty of the will: since they observed only two virtues in the reason or intellect, viz. faith and prudence, the others being in the appetitive power or the affections. If this distinction were true, all the virtues would have to be in the appetite, and all the gifts in the reason. Others observing that Gregory says (Moral. ii, 26) that "the gift of the Holy Ghost, by coming into the soul endows it with prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude, and at the same time strengthens it against every kind of temptation by His sevenfold gift," said that the virtues are given us that we may do good works, and the gifts, that we may resist temptation. But neither is this distinction sufficient. Because the virtues also resist those temptations which lead to the sins that are contrary to the virtues; for everything naturally resists its contrary: which is especially clear with regard to charity, of which it is written (Canticles 8:7): "Many waters cannot quench charity." Others again, seeing that these gifts are set down in Holy Writ as having been in Christ, according to Isaiah 11:2-3, said that the virtues are given simply that we may do good works, but the gifts, in order to conform us to Christ, chiefly with regard to His Passion, for it was then that these gifts shone with the greatest splendor. Yet neither does this appear to be a satisfactory distinction. Because Our Lord Himself wished us to be conformed to Him, chiefly in humility and meekness, according to Matthew 11:29: "Learn of Me, because I am meek and humble of heart," and in charity, according to John 15:12: "Love one another, as I have loved you." Moreover, these virtues were especially resplendent in Christ's Passion. Accordingly, in order to differentiate the gifts from the virtues, we must be guided by the way in which Scripture expresses itself, for we find there that the term employed is "spirit" rather than "gift." For thus it is written (Isaiah 11:2-3): "The spirit . . . of wisdom and of understanding . . . shall rest upon him," etc.: from which words we are clearly given to understand that these seven are there set down as being in us by Divine inspiration. Now inspiration denotes motion from without. For it must be noted that in man there is a twofold principle of movement, one within him, viz. the reason; the other extrinsic to him, viz. God, as stated above (9, A4,6): moreover the Philosopher says this in the chapter On Good Fortune (Ethic. Eudem. vii, 8). Now it is evident that whatever is moved must be proportionate to its mover: and the perfection of the mobile as such, consists in a disposition whereby it is disposed to be well moved by its mover. Hence the more exalted the mover, the more perfect must be the disposition whereby the mobile is made proportionate to its mover: thus we see that a disciple needs a more perfect disposition in order to receive a higher teaching from his master. Now it is manifest that human virtues perfect man according as it is natural for him to be moved by his reason in his interior and exterior actions. Consequently man needs yet higher perfections, whereby to be disposed to be moved by God. These perfections are called gifts, not only because they are infused by God, but also because by them man is disposed to become amenable to the Divine inspiration, according to Isaiah 50:5: "The Lord . . . hath opened my ear, and I do not resist; I have not gone back." Even the Philosopher says in the chapter On Good Fortune (Ethic. Eudem., vii, 8) that for those who are moved by Divine instinct, there is no need to take counsel according to human reason, but only to follow their inner promptings, since they are moved by a principle higher than human reason. This then is what some say, viz. that the gifts perfect man for acts which are higher than acts of virtue.
q. 68 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod huiusmodi dona nominantur quandoque virtutes, secundum communem rationem virtutis. Habent tamen aliquid supereminens rationi communi virtutis, inquantum sunt quaedam divinae virtutes, perficientes hominem inquantum est a Deo motus. Unde et philosophus, in VII Ethic., supra virtutem communem ponit quandam virtutem heroicam vel divinam, secundum quam dicuntur aliqui divini viri. Reply to Objection 1. Sometimes these gifts are called virtues, in the broad sense of the word. Nevertheless, they have something over and above the virtues understood in this broad way, in so far as they are Divine virtues, perfecting man as moved by God. Hence the Philosopher (Ethic. vii, 1) above virtue commonly so called, places a kind of "heroic" or "divine virtue [arete heroike kai theia]," in respect of which some men are called "divine."
q. 68 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod vitia, inquantum sunt contra bonum rationis, contrariantur virtutibus, inquantum autem sunt contra divinum instinctum, contrariantur donis. Idem enim contrariatur Deo et rationi, cuius lumen a Deo derivatur. Reply to Objection 2. The vices are opposed to the virtues, in so far as they are opposed to the good as appointed by reason; but they are opposed to the gifts, in as much as they are opposed to the Divine instinct. For the same thing is opposed both to God and to reason, whose light flows from God.
q. 68 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod definitio illa datur de virtute secundum communem modum virtutis. Unde si volumus definitionem restringere ad virtutes prout distinguuntur a donis, dicemus quod hoc quod dicitur, qua recte vivitur, intelligendum est de rectitudine vitae quae accipitur secundum regulam rationis. Similiter autem donum, prout distinguitur a virtute infusa, potest dici id quod datur a Deo in ordine ad motionem ipsius; quod scilicet facit hominem bene sequentem suos instinctus. Reply to Objection 3. This definition applies to virtue taken in its general sense. Consequently, if we wish to restrict it to virtue as distinguished from the gifts, we must explain the words, "whereby we lead a good life" as referring to the rectitude of life which is measured by the rule of reason. Likewise the gifts, as distinct from infused virtue, may be defined as something given by God in relation to His motion; something, to wit, that makes man to follow well the promptings of God.
q. 68 a. 1 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod sapientia dicitur intellectualis virtus, secundum quod procedit ex iudicio rationis, dicitur autem donum, secundum quod operatur ex instinctu divino. Et similiter dicendum est de aliis. Reply to Objection 4. Wisdom is called an intellectual virtue, so far as it proceeds from the judgment of reason: but it is called a gift, according as its work proceeds from the Divine prompting. The same applies to the other virtues.
q. 68 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dona non sint necessaria homini ad salutem. Dona enim ordinantur ad quandam perfectionem ultra communem perfectionem virtutis. Non autem est homini necessarium ad salutem ut huiusmodi perfectionem consequatur, quae est ultra communem statum virtutis, quia huiusmodi perfectio non cadit sub praecepto, sed sub consilio. Ergo dona non sunt necessaria homini ad salutem. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts are not necessary to man for salvation. Because the gifts are ordained to a perfection surpassing the ordinary perfection of virtue. Now it is not necessary for man's salvation that he should attain to a perfection surpassing the ordinary standard of virtue; because such perfection falls, not under the precept, but under a counsel. Therefore the gifts are not necessary to man for salvation.
q. 68 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, ad salutem hominis sufficit quod homo se bene habeat et circa divina et circa humana. Sed per virtutes theologicas homo se habet bene circa divina; per virtutes autem morales, circa humana. Ergo dona non sunt homini necessaria ad salutem. Objection 2. Further, it is enough, for man's salvation, that he behave well in matters concerning God and matters concerning man. Now man's behavior to God is sufficiently directed by the theological virtues; and his behavior towards men, by the moral virtues. Therefore gifts are not necessary to man for salvation.
q. 68 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, Gregorius dicit, in II Moral., quod spiritus sanctus dat sapientiam contra stultitiam, intellectum contra hebetudinem, consilium contra praecipitationem, fortitudinem contra timorem, scientiam contra ignorantiam, pietatem contra duritiam, timorem contra superbiam. Sed sufficiens remedium potest adhiberi ad omnia ista tollenda per virtutes. Ergo dona non sunt necessaria homini ad salutem. Objection 3. Further, Gregory says (Moral. ii, 26) that "the Holy Ghost gives wisdom against folly, understanding against dullness, counsel against rashness, fortitude against fears, knowledge against ignorance, piety against hardness of our heart, and fear against pride." But a sufficient remedy for all these things is to be found in the virtues. Therefore the gifts are not necessary to man for salvation.
q. 68 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra, inter dona summum videtur esse sapientia, infimum autem timor. Utrumque autem horum necessarium est ad salutem, quia de sapientia dicitur, Sap. VII, neminem diligit Deus nisi eum qui cum sapientia inhabitat; et de timore dicitur, Eccli. I, qui sine timore est, non poterit iustificari. Ergo etiam alia dona media sunt necessaria ad salutem. On the contrary, Of all the gifts, wisdom seems to be the highest, and fear the lowest. Now each of these is necessary for salvation: since of wisdom it is written (Wisdom 7:28): "God loveth none but him that dwelleth with wisdom"; and of fear (Sirach 1:28): "He that is without fear cannot be justified." Therefore the other gifts that are placed between these are also necessary for salvation.
q. 68 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut dictum est, dona sunt quaedam hominis perfectiones, quibus homo disponitur ad hoc quod bene sequatur instinctum divinum. Unde in his in quibus non sufficit instinctus rationis, sed est necessarius spiritus sancti instinctus, per consequens est necessarium donum. Ratio autem hominis est perfecta dupliciter a Deo, primo quidem, naturali perfectione, scilicet secundum lumen naturale rationis; alio modo, quadam supernaturali perfectione, per virtutes theologicas, ut dictum est supra. Et quamvis haec secunda perfectio sit maior quam prima, tamen prima perfectiori modo habetur ab homine quam secunda, nam prima habetur ab homine quasi plena possessio, secunda autem habetur quasi imperfecta; imperfecte enim diligimus et cognoscimus Deum. Manifestum est autem quod unumquodque quod perfecte habet naturam vel formam aliquam aut virtutem, potest per se secundum illam operari, non tamen exclusa operatione Dei, qui in omni natura et voluntate interius operatur. Sed id quod imperfecte habet naturam aliquam vel formam aut virtutem, non potest per se operari, nisi ab altero moveatur. Sicut sol, quia est perfecte lucidus, per seipsum potest illuminare, luna autem, in qua est imperfecte natura lucis, non illuminat nisi illuminata. Medicus etiam, qui perfecte novit artem medicinae, potest per se operari, sed discipulus eius, qui nondum est plene instructus, non potest per se operari, nisi ab eo instruatur. Sic igitur quantum ad ea quae subsunt humanae rationi, in ordine scilicet ad finem connaturalem homini, homo potest operari per iudicium rationis. Si tamen etiam in hoc homo adiuvetur a Deo per specialem instinctum, hoc erit superabundantis bonitatis, unde secundum philosophos, non quicumque habebat virtutes morales acquisitas, habebat virtutes heroicas vel divinas. Sed in ordine ad finem ultimum supernaturalem, ad quem ratio movet secundum quod est aliqualiter et imperfecte formata per virtutes theologicas, non sufficit ipsa motio rationis, nisi desuper adsit instinctus et motio spiritus sancti, secundum illud Rom. VIII, qui spiritu Dei aguntur, hi filii Dei sunt; et si filii, et haeredes, et in Psalmo CXLII dicitur, spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam; quia scilicet in haereditatem illius terrae beatorum nullus potest pervenire, nisi moveatur et deducatur a spiritu sancto. Et ideo ad illum finem consequendum, necessarium est homini habere donum spiritus sancti. I answer that, As stated above (Article 1), the gifts are perfections of man, whereby he is disposed so as to be amenable to the promptings of God. Wherefore in those matters where the prompting of reason is not sufficient, and there is need for the prompting of the Holy Ghost, there is, in consequence, need for a gift. Now man's reason is perfected by God in two ways: first, with its natural perfection, to wit, the natural light of reason; secondly, with a supernatural perfection, to wit, the theological virtues, as stated above (Question 62, Article 1). And, though this latter perfection is greater than the former, yet the former is possessed by man in a more perfect manner than the latter: because man has the former in his full possession, whereas he possesses the latter imperfectly, since we love and know God imperfectly. Now it is evident that anything that has a nature or a form or a virtue perfectly, can of itself work according to them: not, however, excluding the operation of God, Who works inwardly in every nature and in every will. On the other hand, that which has a nature, or form, or virtue imperfectly, cannot of itself work, unless it be moved by another. Thus the sun which possesses light perfectly, can shine by itself; whereas the moon which has the nature of light imperfectly, sheds only a borrowed light. Again, a physician, who knows the medical art perfectly, can work by himself; but his pupil, who is not yet fully instructed, cannot work by himself, but needs to receive instructions from him. Accordingly, in matters subject to human reason, and directed to man's connatural end, man can work through the judgment of his reason. If, however, even in these things man receive help in the shape of special promptings from God, this will be out of God's superabundant goodness: hence, according to the philosophers, not every one that had the acquired moral virtues, had also the heroic or divine virtues. But in matters directed to the supernatural end, to which man's reason moves him, according as it is, in a manner, and imperfectly, informed by the theological virtues, the motion of reason does not suffice, unless it receive in addition the prompting or motion of the Holy Ghost, according to Romans 8:14-17: "Whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, they are sons of God . . . and if sons, heirs also": and Psalm 142:10: "Thy good Spirit shall lead me into the right land," because, to wit, none can receive the inheritance of that land of the Blessed, except he be moved and led thither by the Holy Ghost. Therefore, in order to accomplish this end, it is necessary for man to have the gift of the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod dona excedunt communem perfectionem virtutum, non quantum ad genus operum, eo modo quo consilia excedunt praecepta, sed quantum ad modum operandi, secundum quod movetur homo ab altiori principio. Reply to Objection 1. The gifts surpass the ordinary perfection of the virtues, not as regards the kind of works (as the counsels surpass the commandments), but as regards the manner of working, in respect of man being moved by a higher principle.
q. 68 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod per virtutes theologicas et morales non ita perficitur homo in ordine ad ultimum finem, quin semper indigeat moveri quodam superiori instinctu spiritus sancti, ratione iam dicta. Reply to Objection 2. By the theological and moral virtues, man is not so perfected in respect of his last end, as not to stand in continual need of being moved by the yet higher promptings of the Holy Ghost, for the reason already given.
q. 68 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod rationi humanae non sunt omnia cognita, neque omnia possibilia, sive accipiatur ut perfecta perfectione naturali, sive accipiatur ut perfecta theologicis virtutibus. Unde non potest quantum ad omnia repellere stultitiam, et alia huiusmodi, de quibus ibi fit mentio. Sed Deus cuius scientiae et potestati omnia subsunt, sua motione ab omni stultitia et ignorantia et hebetudine et duritia et ceteris huiusmodi, nos tutos reddit. Et ideo dona spiritus sancti, quae faciunt nos bene sequentes instinctum ipsius, dicuntur contra huiusmodi defectus dari. Reply to Objection 3. Whether we consider human reason as perfected in its natural perfection, or as perfected by the theological virtues, it does not know all things, nor all possible things. Consequently it is unable to avoid folly and other like things mentioned in the objection. God, however, to Whose knowledge and power all things are subject, by His motion safeguards us from all folly, ignorance, dullness of mind and hardness of heart, and the rest. Consequently the gifts of the Holy Ghost, which make us amenable to His promptings, are said to be given as remedies to these defects.
q. 68 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod dona spiritus sancti non sint habitus. Habitus enim est qualitas in homine manens, est enim qualitas difficile mobilis, ut dicitur in praedicamentis. Sed proprium Christi est quod dona spiritus sancti in eo requiescant, ut dicitur Isaiae XI. Et Ioan. I, dicitur, super quem videris spiritum descendentem, et manentem super eum, hic est qui baptizat, quod exponens Gregorius, in II Moral., dicit, in cunctis fidelibus spiritus sanctus venit; sed in solo mediatore semper singulariter permanet. Ergo dona spiritus sancti non sunt habitus. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not habits. Because a habit is a quality abiding in man, being defined as "a quality difficult to remove," as stated in the Predicaments (Categor. vi). Now it is proper to Christ that the gifts of the Holy Ghost rest in Him, as stated in Isaiah 11:2-3: "He upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, He it is that baptizeth"; on which words Gregory comments as follows (Moral. ii, 27): "The Holy Ghost comes upon all the faithful; but, in a singular way, He dwells always in the Mediator." Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not habits.
q. 68 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, dona spiritus sancti perficiunt hominem secundum quod agitur a spiritu Dei, sicut dictum est. Sed inquantum homo agitur a spiritu Dei, se habet quodammodo ut instrumentum respectu eius. Non autem convenit ut instrumentum perficiatur per habitum, sed principale agens. Ergo dona spiritus sancti non sunt habitus. Objection 2. Further, the gifts of the Holy Ghost perfect man according as he is moved by the Spirit of God, as stated above (1,2). But in so far as man is moved by the Spirit of God, he is somewhat like an instrument in His regard. Now to be perfected by a habit is befitting, not an instrument, but a principal agent. Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not habits.
q. 68 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, sicut dona spiritus sancti sunt ex inspiratione divina, ita et donum prophetiae. Sed prophetia non est habitus, non enim semper spiritus prophetiae adest prophetis, ut Gregorius dicit, in I homilia Ezechielis. Ergo neque etiam dona spiritus sancti sunt habitus. Objection 3. Further, as the gifts of the Holy Ghost are due to Divine inspiration, so is the gift of prophecy. Now prophecy is not a habit: for "the spirit of prophecy does not always reside in the prophets," as Gregory states (Hom. i in Ezechiel). Neither, therefore, are the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra est quod dominus dicit discipulis, de spiritu sancto loquens, Ioan. XIV, apud vos manebit, et in vobis erit. Spiritus autem sanctus non est in hominibus absque donis eius. Ergo dona eius manent in hominibus. Ergo non solum sunt actus vel passiones, sed etiam habitus permanentes. On the contrary, Our Lord in speaking of the Holy Ghost said to His disciples (John 14:17): "He shall abide with you, and shall be in you." Now the Holy Ghost is not in a man without His gifts. Therefore His gifts abide in man. Therefore they are not merely acts or passions but abiding habits.
q. 68 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut dictum est, dona sunt quaedam perfectiones hominis, quibus disponitur ad hoc quod homo bene sequatur instinctum spiritus sancti. Manifestum est autem ex supradictis quod virtutes morales perficiunt vim appetitivam secundum quod participat aliqualiter rationem, inquantum scilicet nata est moveri per imperium rationis. Hoc igitur modo dona spiritus sancti se habent ad hominem in comparatione ad spiritum sanctum, sicut virtutes morales se habent ad vim appetitivam in comparatione ad rationem. Virtutes autem morales habitus quidam sunt, quibus vires appetitivae disponuntur ad prompte obediendum rationi. Unde et dona spiritus sancti sunt quidam habitus, quibus homo perficitur ad prompte obediendum spiritui sancto. I answer that, As stated above (Article 1), the gifts are perfections of man, whereby he becomes amenable to the promptings of the Holy Ghost. Now it is evident from what has been already said (56, 4; 58, 2), that the moral virtues perfect the appetitive power according as it partakes somewhat of the reason, in so far, to wit, as it has a natural aptitude to be moved by the command of reason. Accordingly the gifts of the Holy Ghost, as compared with the Holy Ghost Himself, are related to man, even as the moral virtues, in comparison with the reason, are related to the appetitive power. Now the moral virtues are habits, whereby the powers of appetite are disposed to obey reason promptly. Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are habits whereby man is perfected to obey readily the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Gregorius ibidem solvit, dicens quod in illis donis sine quibus ad vitam perveniri non potest, spiritus sanctus in electis omnibus semper manet, sed in aliis non semper manet. Septem autem dona sunt necessaria ad salutem, ut dictum est. Unde quantum ad ea, spiritus sanctus semper manet in sanctis. Reply to Objection 1. Gregory solves this objection (Moral. ii, 27) by saying that "by those gifts without which one cannot obtain life, the Holy Ghost ever abides in all the elect, but not by His other gifts." Now the seven gifts are necessary for salvation, as stated above (Article 2). Therefore, with regard to them, the Holy Ghost ever abides in holy men.
q. 68 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod ratio illa procedit de instrumento cuius non est agere, sed solum agi. Tale autem instrumentum non est homo; sed sic agitur a spiritu sancto, quod etiam agit, inquantum est liberi arbitrii. Unde indiget habitu. Reply to Objection 2. This argument holds, in the case of an instrument which has no faculty of action, but only of being acted upon. But man is not an instrument of that kind; for he is so acted upon, by the Holy Ghost, that he also acts himself, in so far as he has a free-will. Therefore he needs a habit.
q. 68 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod prophetia est de donis quae sunt ad manifestationem spiritus, non autem ad necessitatem salutis. Unde non est simile. Reply to Objection 3. Prophecy is one of those gifts which are for the manifestation of the Spirit, not for the necessity of salvation: hence the comparison fails.
q. 68 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod inconvenienter septem dona spiritus sancti enumerentur. In illa enim enumeratione ponuntur quatuor pertinentia ad virtutes intellectuales, scilicet sapientia, intellectus, scientia et consilium, quod pertinet ad prudentiam, nihil autem ibi ponitur quod pertineat ad artem, quae est quinta virtus intellectualis. Similiter etiam ponitur aliquid pertinens ad iustitiam, scilicet pietas, et aliquid pertinens ad fortitudinem, scilicet donum fortitudinis, nihil autem ponitur ibi pertinens ad temperantiam. Ergo insufficienter enumerantur dona. Objection 1. It would seem that seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are unsuitably enumerated. For in that enumeration four are set down corresponding to the intellectual virtues, viz. wisdom, understanding, knowledge, and counsel, which corresponds to prudence; whereas nothing is set down corresponding to art, which is the fifth intellectual virtue. Moreover, something is included corresponding to justice, viz. piety, and something corresponding to fortitude, viz. the gift of fortitude; while there is nothing to correspond to temperance. Therefore the gifts are enumerated insufficiently.
q. 68 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, pietas est pars iustitiae. Sed circa fortitudinem non ponitur aliqua pars eius, sed ipsa fortitudo. Ergo non debuit poni pietas, sed ipsa iustitia. Objection 2. Further, piety is a part of justice. But no part of fortitude is assigned to correspond thereto, but fortitude itself. Therefore justice itself, and not piety, ought to have been set down.
q. 68 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, virtutes theologicae maxime ordinant nos ad Deum. Cum ergo dona perficiant hominem secundum quod movetur a Deo, videtur quod debuissent poni aliqua dona pertinentia ad theologicas virtutes. Objection 3. Further, the theological virtues, more than any, direct us to God. Since, then, the gifts perfect man according as he is moved by God, it seems that some gifts, corresponding to the theological virtues, should have been included.
q. 68 a. 4 arg. 4 Praeterea, sicut Deus timetur, ita etiam amatur, et in ipsum aliquis sperat, et de eo delectatur. Amor autem, spes et delectatio sunt passiones condivisae timori. Ergo, sicut timor ponitur donum, ita et alia tria debent poni dona. Objection 4. Further, even as God is an object of fear, so is He of love, of hope, and of joy. Now love, hope, and joy are passions condivided with fear. Therefore, as fear is set down as a gift, so ought the other three.
q. 68 a. 4 arg. 5 Praeterea, intellectui adiungitur sapientia quae regit ipsum; fortitudini autem consilium, pietati vero scientia. Ergo et timori debuit addi aliquod donum directivum. Inconvenienter ergo septem dona spiritus sancti enumerantur. Objection 5. Further, wisdom is added in order to direct understanding; counsel, to direct fortitude; knowledge, to direct piety. Therefore, some gift should have been added for the purpose of directing fear. Therefore the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are unsuitably enumerated.
q. 68 a. 4 s. c. Sed in contrarium est auctoritas Scripturae, Isaiae XI. On the contrary, stands the authority of Holy Writ (Isaiah 11:2-3).
q. 68 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut dictum est, dona sunt quidam habitus perficientes hominem ad hoc quod prompte sequatur instinctum spiritus sancti, sicut virtutes morales perficiunt vires appetitivas ad obediendum rationi. Sicut autem vires appetitivae natae sunt moveri per imperium rationis, ita omnes vires humanae natae sunt moveri per instinctum Dei, sicut a quadam superiori potentia. Et ideo in omnibus viribus hominis quae possunt esse principia humanorum actuum, sicut sunt virtutes, ita etiam sunt dona, scilicet in ratione, et in vi appetitiva. Ratio autem est speculativa et practica, et in utraque consideratur apprehensio veritatis, quae pertinet ad inventionem; et iudicium de veritate. Ad apprehensionem igitur veritatis, perficitur speculativa ratio per intellectum; practica vero per consilium. Ad recte autem iudicandum, speculativa quidem per sapientiam, practica vero per scientiam perficitur. Appetitiva autem virtus, in his quidem quae sunt ad alterum, perficitur per pietatem. In his autem quae sunt ad seipsum, perficitur per fortitudinem contra terrorem periculorum, contra concupiscentiam vero inordinatam delectabilium, per timorem, secundum illud Proverb. XV, per timorem domini declinat omnis a malo; et in Psalmo CXVIII, confige timore tuo carnes meas, a iudiciis enim tuis timui. Et sic patet quod haec dona extendunt se ad omnia ad quae se extendunt virtutes tam intellectuales quam morales. I answer that, As stated above (Article 3), the gifts are habits perfecting man so that he is ready to follow the promptings of the Holy Ghost, even as the moral virtues perfect the appetitive powers so that they obey the reason. Now just as it is natural for the appetitive powers to be moved by the command of reason, so it is natural for all the forces in man to be moved by the instinct of God, as by a superior power. Therefore whatever powers in man can be the principles of human actions, can also be the subjects of gifts, even as they are virtues; and such powers are the reason and appetite. Now the reason is speculative and practical: and in both we find the apprehension of truth (which pertains to the discovery of truth), and judgment concerning the truth. Accordingly, for the apprehension of truth, the speculative reason is perfected by "understanding"; the practical reason, by "counsel." In order to judge aright, the speculative reason is perfected by "wisdom"; the practical reason by "knowledge." The appetitive power, in matters touching a man's relations to another, is perfected by "piety"; in matters touching himself, it is perfected by "fortitude" against the fear of dangers; and against inordinate lust for pleasures, by "fear," according to Proverbs 15:27: "By the fear of the Lord every one declineth from evil," and Psalm 118:120: "Pierce Thou my flesh with Thy fear: for I am afraid of Thy judgments." Hence it is clear that these gifts extend to all those things to which the virtues, both intellectual and moral, extend.
q. 68 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod dona spiritus sancti perficiunt hominem in his quae pertinent ad bene vivendum, ad quae non ordinatur ars, sed ad exteriora factibilia; est enim ars ratio recta non agibilium, sed factibilium, ut dicitur in VI Ethic. Potest tamen dici quod, quantum ad infusionem donorum, ars pertinet ad spiritum sanctum, qui est principaliter movens; non autem ad homines, qui sunt quaedam organa eius dum ab eo moventur. Temperantiae autem respondet quodammodo donum timoris. Sicut enim ad virtutem temperantiae pertinet, secundum eius propriam rationem, ut aliquis recedat a delectationibus pravis propter bonum rationis; ita ad donum timoris pertinet quod aliquis recedat a delectationibus pravis propter Dei timorem. Reply to Objection 1. The gifts of the Holy Ghost perfect man in matters concerning a good life: whereas art is not directed to such matters, but to external things that can be made, since art is the right reason, not about things to be done, but about things to be made (Ethic. vi, 4). However, we may say that, as regards the infusion of the gifts, the art is on the part of the Holy Ghost, Who is the principal mover, and not on the part of men, who are His organs when He moves them. The gift of fear corresponds, in a manner, to temperance: for just as it belongs to temperance, properly speaking, to restrain man from evil pleasures for the sake of the good appointed by reason, so does it belong to the gift of fear, to withdraw man from evil pleasures through fear of God.
q. 68 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod nomen iustitiae imponitur a rectitudine rationis, et ideo nomen virtutis est convenientius quam nomen doni. Sed nomen pietatis importat reverentiam quam habemus ad patrem et ad patriam. Et quia pater omnium Deus est, etiam cultus Dei pietas nominatur; ut Augustinus dicit, X de Civ. Dei. Et ideo convenienter donum quo aliquis propter reverentiam Dei bonum operatur ad omnes, pietas nominatur. Reply to Objection 2. Justice is so called from the rectitude of the reason, and so it is more suitably called a virtue than a gift. But the name of piety denotes the reverence which we give to our father and to our country. And since God is the Father of all, the worship of God is also called piety, as Augustine states (De Civ. Dei x, 1). Therefore the gift whereby a man, through reverence for God, works good to all, is fittingly called piety.
q. 68 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod animus hominis non movetur a spiritu sancto, nisi ei secundum aliquem modum uniatur, sicut instrumentum non movetur ab artifice nisi per contactum, aut per aliquam aliam unionem. Prima autem unio hominis est per fidem, spem et caritatem. Unde istae virtutes praesupponuntur ad dona, sicut radices quaedam donorum. Unde omnia dona pertinent ad has tres virtutes, sicut quaedam derivationes praedictarum virtutum. Reply to Objection 3. The mind of man is not moved by the Holy Ghost, unless in some way it be united to Him: even as the instrument is not moved by the craftsman, unless there by contact or some other kind of union between them. Now the primal union of man with God is by faith, hope and charity: and, consequently, these virtues are presupposed to the gifts, as being their roots. Therefore all the gifts correspond to these three virtues, as being derived therefrom.
q. 68 a. 4 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod amor et spes et delectatio habent bonum pro obiecto. Summum autem bonum Deus est, unde nomina harum passionum transferuntur ad virtutes theologicas, quibus anima coniungitur Deo. Timoris autem obiectum est malum, quod Deo nullo modo competit, unde non importat coniunctionem ad Deum, sed magis recessum ab aliquibus rebus propter reverentiam Dei. Et ideo non est nomen virtutis theologicae, sed doni, quod eminentius retrahit a malis quam virtus moralis. Reply to Objection 4. Love, hope and joy have good for their object. Now God is the Sovereign Good: wherefore the names of these passions are transferred to the theological virtues which unite man to God. On the other hand, the object of fear is evil, which can nowise apply to God: hence fear does not denote union with God, but withdrawal from certain things through reverence for God. Hence it does not give its name to a theological virtue, but to a gift, which withdraws us from evil, for higher motives than moral virtue does.
q. 68 a. 4 ad 5 Ad quintum dicendum quod per sapientiam dirigitur et hominis intellectus, et hominis affectus. Et ideo ponuntur duo correspondentia sapientiae tanquam directivo, ex parte quidem intellectus, donum intellectus; ex parte autem affectus, donum timoris. Ratio enim timendi Deum praecipue sumitur ex consideratione excellentiae divinae, quam considerat sapientia. Reply to Objection 5. Wisdom directs both the intellect and the affections of man. Hence two gifts are set down as corresponding to wisdom as their directing principle; on the part of the intellect, the gift of understanding; on the part of the affections, the gift of fear. Because the principal reason for fearing God is taken from a consideration of the Divine excellence, which wisdom considers.
q. 68 a. 5 arg. 1 Ad quintum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dona non sint connexa. Dicit enim apostolus, I ad Cor. XII, alii datur per spiritum sermo sapientiae, alii sermo scientiae secundum eundem spiritum. Sed sapientia et scientia inter dona spiritus sancti computantur. Ergo dona spiritus sancti dantur diversis, et non connectuntur sibi invicem in eodem. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts are not connected, for the Apostle says (1 Corinthians 12:8): "To one . . . by the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom, and to another, the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit." Now wisdom and knowledge are reckoned among the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are given to divers men, and are not connected together in the same man.
q. 68 a. 5 arg. 2 Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in XIV de Trin., quod scientia non pollent fideles plurimi, quamvis polleant ipsa fide. Sed fidem concomitatur aliquod de donis, ad minus donum timoris. Ergo videtur quod dona non sint ex necessitate connexa in uno et eodem. Objection 2. Further, Augustine says (De Trin. xiv, 1) that "many of the faithful have not knowledge, though they have faith." But some of the gifts, at least the gift of fear, accompany faith. Therefore it seems that the gifts are not necessarily connected together in one and the same man.
q. 68 a. 5 arg. 3 Praeterea, Gregorius, in I Moral., dicit quod minor est sapientia, si intellectu careat; et valde inutilis est intellectus, si ex sapientia non subsistat. Vile est consilium, cui opus fortitudinis deest; et valde fortitudo destruitur, nisi per consilium fulciatur. Nulla est scientia, si utilitatem pietatis non habet; et valde inutilis est pietas, si scientiae discretione caret. Timor quoque ipse, si non has virtutes habuerit, ad nullum opus bonae actionis surgit. Ex quibus videtur quod unum donum possit sine alio haberi. Non ergo dona spiritus sancti sunt connexa. Objection 3. Further, Gregory says (Moral. i) that wisdom "is of small account if it lack understanding, and understanding is wholly useless if it be not based upon wisdom . . . Counsel is worthless, when the strength of fortitude is lacking thereto . . . and fortitude is very weak if it be not supported by counsel . . . Knowledge is nought if it hath not the use of piety . . . and piety is very useless if it lack the discernment of knowledge . . . and assuredly, unless it has these virtues with it, fear itself rises up to the doing of no good action": from which it seems that it is possible to have one gift without another. Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not connected.
q. 68 a. 5 s. c. Sed contra est quod ibidem Gregorius praemittit, dicens, illud in hoc filiorum convivio perscrutandum videtur, quod semetipsos invicem pascunt. Per filios autem Iob, de quibus loquitur, designantur dona spiritus sancti. Ergo dona spiritus sancti sunt connexa, per hoc quod se invicem reficiunt. On the contrary, Gregory prefaces the passage above quoted, with the following remark: "It is worthy of note in this feast of Job's sons, that by turns they fed one another." Now the sons of Job, of whom he is speaking, denote the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Therefore the gifts of the Holy Ghost are connected together by strengthening one another.
q. 68 a. 5 co. Respondeo dicendum quod huius quaestionis veritas de facili ex praemissis potest haberi. Dictum est enim supra quod sicut vires appetitivae disponuntur per virtutes morales in comparatione ad regimen rationis, ita omnes vires animae disponuntur per dona in comparatione ad spiritum sanctum moventem. Spiritus autem sanctus habitat in nobis per caritatem, secundum illud Rom. V, caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis, sicut et ratio nostra perficitur per prudentiam. Unde sicut virtutes morales connectuntur sibi invicem in prudentia, ita dona spiritus sancti connectuntur sibi invicem in caritate, ita scilicet quod qui caritatem habet, omnia dona spiritus sancti habet; quorum nullum sine caritate haberi potest. I answer that, The true answer to this question is easily gathered from what has been already set down. For it has been stated (3) that as the powers of the appetite are disposed by the moral virtues as regards the governance of reason, so all the powers of the soul are disposed by the gifts as regards the motion of the Holy Ghost. Now the Holy Ghost dwells in us by charity, according to Romans 5:5: "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, Who is given to us," even as our reason is perfected by prudence. Wherefore, just as the moral virtues are united together in prudence, so the gifts of the Holy Ghost are connected together in charity: so that whoever has charity has all the gifts of the Holy Ghost, none of which can one possess without charity.
q. 68 a. 5 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod sapientia et scientia uno modo possunt considerari secundum quod sunt gratiae gratis datae, prout scilicet aliquis abundat intantum in cognitione rerum divinarum et humanarum, ut possit et fideles instruere et adversarios confutare. Et sic loquitur ibi apostolus de sapientia et scientia, unde signanter fit mentio de sermone sapientiae et scientiae. Alio modo possunt accipi prout sunt dona spiritus sancti. Et sic sapientia et scientia nihil aliud sunt quam quaedam perfectiones humanae mentis, secundum quas disponitur ad sequendum instinctus spiritus sancti in cognitione divinorum vel humanorum. Et sic patet quod huiusmodi dona sunt in omnibus habentibus caritatem. Reply to Objection 1. Wisdom and knowledge can be considered in one way as gratuitous graces, in so far, to wit, as man so far abounds in the knowledge of things Divine and human, that he is able both to instruct the believer and confound the unbeliever. It is in this sense that the Apostle speaks, in this passage, about wisdom and knowledge: hence he mentions pointedly the "word" of wisdom and the "word" of knowledge. They may be taken in another way for the gifts of the Holy Ghost: and thus wisdom and knowledge are nothing else but perfections of the human mind, rendering it amenable to the promptings of the Holy Ghost in the knowledge of things Divine and human. Consequently it is clear that these gifts are in all who are possessed of charity.
q. 68 a. 5 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod Augustinus ibi loquitur de scientia exponens praedictam auctoritatem apostoli, unde loquitur de scientia praedicto modo accepta, secundum quod est gratia gratis data. Quod patet ex hoc quod subdit, aliud enim est scire tantummodo quid homo credere debeat propter adipiscendam vitam beatam, quae non nisi aeterna est; aliud autem scire quemadmodum hoc ipsum et piis opituletur, et contra impios defendatur; quam proprio appellare vocabulo scientiam videtur apostolus. Reply to Objection 2. Augustine is speaking there of knowledge, while expounding the passage of the Apostle quoted above (Objection 1): hence he is referring to knowledge, in the sense already explained, as a gratuitous grace. This is clear from the context which follows: "For it is one thing to know only what a man must believe in order to gain the blissful life, which is no other than eternal life; and another, to know how to impart this to godly souls, and to defend it against the ungodly, which latter the Apostle seems to have styled by the proper name of knowledge."
q. 68 a. 5 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod, sicut uno modo connexio virtutum cardinalium probatur per hoc quod una earum perficitur quodammodo per aliam, ut supra dictum est; ita Gregorius eodem modo vult probare connexionem donorum, per hoc quod unum sine alio non potest esse perfectum. Unde praemittit dicens, valde singula quaelibet destituitur, si non una alii virtus virtuti suffragetur. Non ergo datur intelligi quod unum donum possit esse sine alio, sed quod intellectus, si esset sine sapientia, non esset donum; sicut temperantia, si esset sine iustitia, non esset virtus. Reply to Objection 3. Just as the connection of the cardinal virtues is proved in one way from the fact that one is, in a manner, perfected by another, as stated above (Question 65, Article 1); so Gregory wishes to prove the connection of the gifts, in the same way, from the fact that one cannot be perfect without the other. Hence he had already observed that "each particular virtue is to the last degree destitute, unless one virtue lend its support to another." We are therefore not to understand that one gift can be without another; but that if understanding were without wisdom, it would not be a gift; even as temperance, without justice, would not be a virtue.
q. 68 a. 6 arg. 1 Ad sextum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dona spiritus sancti non maneant in patria. Dicit enim Gregorius, in II Moral., quod spiritus sanctus contra singula tentamenta septem donis erudit mentem. Sed in patria non erunt aliqua tentamenta; secundum illud Isaiae XI, non nocebunt et non occident in universo monte sancto meo. Ergo dona spiritus sancti non erunt in patria. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts of the Holy Ghost do not remain in heaven. For Gregory says (Moral. ii, 26) that by means of His sevenfold gift the "Holy Ghost instructs the mind against all temptations." Now there will be no temptations in heaven, according to Isaiah 11:9: "They shall not hurt, nor shall they kill in all My holy mountain." Therefore there will be no gifts of the Holy Ghost in heaven.
q. 68 a. 6 arg. 2 Praeterea, dona spiritus sancti sunt habitus quidam, ut supra dictum est. Frustra autem essent habitus, ubi actus esse non possunt. Actus autem quorundam donorum in patria esse non possunt, dicit enim Gregorius, in I Moral., quod intellectus facit audita penetrare, et consilium prohibet esse praecipitem, et fortitudo facit non metuere adversa, et pietas replet cordis viscera operibus misericordiae; haec autem non competunt statui patriae. Ergo huiusmodi dona non erunt in statu gloriae. Objection 2. Further, the gifts of the Holy Ghost are habits, as stated above (Article 3). But habits are of no use, where their acts are impossible. Now the acts of some gifts are not possible in heaven; for Gregory says (Moral. i, 15) that "understanding . . . penetrates the truths heard . . . counsel . . . stays us from acting rashly . . . fortitude . . . has no fear of adversity . . . piety satisfies the inmost heart with deeds of mercy," all of which are incompatible with the heavenly state. Therefore these gifts will not remain in the state of glory.
q. 68 a. 6 arg. 3 Praeterea, donorum quaedam perficiunt hominem in vita contemplativa, ut sapientia et intellectus; quaedam in vita activa, ut pietas et fortitudo. Sed activa vita cum hac vita terminatur; ut Gregorius dicit, in VI Moral. Ergo in statu gloriae non erunt omnia dona spiritus sancti. Objection 3. Further, some of the gifts perfect man in the contemplative life, e.g. wisdom and understanding: and some in the active life, e.g. piety and fortitude. Now the active life ends with this as Gregory states (Moral. vi). Therefore not all the gifts of the Holy Ghost will be in the state of glory.
q. 68 a. 6 s. c. Sed contra est quod Ambrosius dicit, in libro de spiritu sancto, civitas Dei illa, Ierusalem caelestis, non meatu alicuius fluvii terrestris abluitur; sed ex vitae fonte procedens spiritus sanctus, cuius nos brevi satiamur haustu, in illis caelestibus spiritibus redundantius videtur affluere, pleno septem virtutum spiritualium fervens meatu. On the contrary, Ambrose says (De Spiritu Sancto i, 20): "The city of God, the heavenly Jerusalem is not washed with the waters of an earthly river: it is the Holy Ghost, of Whose outpouring we but taste, Who, proceeding from the Fount of life, seems to flow more abundantly in those celestial spirits, a seething torrent of sevenfold heavenly virtue."
q. 68 a. 6 co. Respondeo dicendum quod de donis dupliciter possumus loqui. Uno modo, quantum ad essentiam donorum, et sic perfectissime erunt in patria, sicut patet per auctoritatem Ambrosii inductam. Cuius ratio est quia dona spiritus sancti perficiunt mentem humanam ad sequendam motionem spiritus sancti, quod praecipue erit in patria, quando Deus erit omnia in omnibus, ut dicitur I ad Cor. XV, et quando homo erit totaliter subditus Deo. Alio modo possunt considerari quantum ad materiam circa quam operantur, et sic in praesenti habent operationem circa aliquam materiam circa quam non habebunt operationem in statu gloriae. Et secundum hoc, non manebunt in patria, sicut supra de virtutibus cardinalibus dictum est. I answer that, We may speak of the gifts in two ways: first, as to their essence; and thus they will be most perfectly in heaven, as may be gathered from the passage of Ambrose, just quoted. The reason for this is that the gifts of the Holy Ghost render the human mind amenable to the motion of the Holy Ghost: which will be especially realized in heaven, where God will be "all in all" (1 Corinthians 15:28), and man entirely subject unto Him. Secondly, they may be considered as regards the matter about which their operations are: and thus, in the present life they have an operation about a matter, in respect of which they will have no operation in the state of glory. Considered in this way, they will not remain in the state of glory; just as we have stated to be the case with regard to the cardinal virtues (67, 1).
q. 68 a. 6 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Gregorius loquitur ibi de donis secundum quod competunt statui praesenti, sic enim donis protegimur contra tentamenta malorum. Sed in statu gloriae, cessantibus malis, per dona spiritus sancti perficiemur in bono. Reply to Objection 1. Gregory is speaking there of the gifts according as they are compatible with the present state: for it is thus that they afford us protection against evil temptations. But in the state of glory, where all evil will have ceased, we shall be perfected in good by the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 6 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod Gregorius quasi in singulis donis ponit aliquid quod transit cum statu praesenti, et aliquid quod permanet etiam in futuro. Dicit enim quod sapientia mentem de aeternorum spe et certitudine reficit, quorum duorum spes transit, sed certitudo remanet. Et de intellectu dicit quod in eo quod audita penetrat, reficiendo cor, tenebras eius illustrat, quorum auditus transit, quia non docebit vir fratrem suum, ut dicitur Ierem. XXXI; sed illustratio mentis manebit. De consilio autem dicit quod prohibet esse praecipitem, quod est necessarium in praesenti, et iterum quod ratione animum replet, quod est necessarium etiam in futuro. De fortitudine vero dicit quod adversa non metuit, quod est necessarium in praesenti, et iterum quod confidentiae cibos apponit, quod permanet etiam in futuro. De scientia vero unum tantum ponit, scilicet quod ignorantiae ieiunium superat, quod pertinet ad statum praesentem. Sed quod addit, in ventre mentis, potest figuraliter intelligi repletio cognitionis, quae pertinet etiam ad statum futurum. De pietate vero dicit quod cordis viscera misericordiae operibus replet. Quod quidem secundum verba, pertinet tantum ad statum praesentem. Sed ipse intimus affectus proximorum, per viscera designatus, pertinet etiam ad futurum statum; in quo pietas non exhibebit misericordiae opera, sed congratulationis affectum. De timore vero dicit quod premit mentem, ne de praesentibus superbiat, quod pertinet ad statum praesentem; et quod de futuris cibo spei confortat, quod etiam pertinet ad statum praesentem, quantum ad spem; sed potest etiam ad statum futurum pertinere, quantum ad confortationem de rebus hic speratis, et ibi obtentis. Reply to Objection 2. Gregory, in almost every gift, includes something that passes away with the present state, and something that remains in the future state. For he says that "wisdom strengthens the mind with the hope and certainty of eternal things"; of which two, hope passes, and certainty remains. Of understanding, he says "that it penetrates the truths heard, refreshing the heart and enlightening its darkness," of which, hearing passes away, since "they shall teach no more every man . . . his brother" (Jeremiah 31:3-4); but the enlightening of the mind remains. Of counsel he says that it "prevents us from being impetuous," which is necessary in the present life; and also that "it makes the mind full of reason," which is necessary even in the future state. Of fortitude he says that it "fears not adversity," which is necessary in the present life; and further, that it "sets before us the viands of confidence," which remains also in the future life. With regard to knowledge he mentions only one thing, viz. that "she overcomes the void of ignorance," which refers to the present state. When, however, he adds "in the womb of the mind," this may refer figuratively to the fulness of knowledge, which belongs to the future state. Of piety he says that "it satisfies the inmost heart with deeds of mercy." These words taken literally refer only to the present state: yet the inward regard for our neighbor, signified by "the inmost heart," belongs also to the future state, when piety will achieve, not works of mercy, but fellowship of joy. Of fear he say that "it oppresses the mind, lest it pride itself in present things," which refers to the present state, and that "it strengthens it with the meat of hope for the future," which also belongs to the present state, as regards hope, but may also refer to the future state, as regards being "strengthened" for things we hope are here, and obtain there.
q. 68 a. 6 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod ratio illa procedit de donis quantum ad materiam. Opera enim activae vitae non erunt materia donorum, sed omnia habebunt actus suos circa ea quae pertinent ad vitam contemplativam, quae est vita beata. Reply to Objection 3. This argument considers the gifts as to their matter. For the matter of the gifts will not be the works of the active life; but all the gifts will have their respective acts about things pertaining to the contemplative life, which is the life of heavenly bliss.
q. 68 a. 7 arg. 1 Ad septimum sic proceditur. Videtur quod dignitas donorum non attenditur secundum enumerationem qua enumerantur Isaiae XI. Illud enim videtur esse potissimum in donis, quod maxime Deus ab homine requirit. Sed maxime requirit Deus ab homine timorem, dicitur enim Deut. X, et nunc, Israel, quid dominus Deus tuus petit a te, nisi ut timeas dominum Deum tuum? Et Malach. I, dicitur, si ego dominus, ubi timor meus? Ergo videtur quod timor, qui enumeratur ultimo, non sit infimum donorum, sed maximum. Objection 1. It would seem that the gifts are not set down by Isaias in their order of dignity. For the principal gift is, seemingly, that which, more than the others, God requires of man. Now God requires of man fear, more than the other gifts: for it is written (Deuteronomy 10:12): "And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but that thou fear the Lord thy God?" and (Malachi 1:6): "If . . . I be a master, where is My fear?" Therefore it seems that fear, which is mentioned last, is not the lowest but the greatest of the gifts.
q. 68 a. 7 arg. 2 Praeterea, pietas videtur esse quoddam bonum universale, dicit enim apostolus, I ad Tim. IV, quod pietas ad omnia utilis est. Sed bonum universale praefertur particularibus bonis. Ergo pietas, quae penultimo enumeratur, videtur esse potissimum donorum. Objection 2. Further, piety seems to be a kind of common good; since the Apostle says (1 Timothy 4:8): "Piety [Douay: 'Godliness'] is profitable to all things." Now a common good is preferable to particular goods. Therefore piety, which is given the last place but one, seems to be the most excellent gift.
q. 68 a. 7 arg. 3 Praeterea, scientia perficit iudicium hominis; consilium autem ad inquisitionem pertinet. Sed iudicium praeeminet inquisitioni. Ergo scientia est potius donum quam consilium, cum tamen post enumeretur. Objection 3. Further, knowledge perfects man's judgment, while counsel pertains to inquiry. But judgment is more excellent than inquiry. Therefore knowledge is a more excellent gift than counsel; and yet it is set down as being below it.
q. 68 a. 7 arg. 4 Praeterea, fortitudo pertinet ad vim appetitivam; scientia autem ad rationem. Sed ratio est eminentior quam vis appetitiva. Ergo et scientia est eminentius donum quam fortitudo, quae tamen primo enumeratur. Non ergo dignitas donorum attenditur secundum ordinem enumerationis eorum. Objection 4. Further, fortitude pertains to the appetitive power, while science belongs to reason. But reason is a more excellent power than the appetite. Therefore knowledge is a more excellent gift than fortitude; and yet the latter is given the precedence. Therefore the gifts are not set down in their order of dignity.
q. 68 a. 7 s. c. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in libro de Serm. Dom. in monte, videtur mihi septiformis operatio spiritus sancti, de qua Isaias loquitur, his gradibus sententiisque congruere (de quibus fit mentio Matth. V); sed interest ordinis. Nam ibi (scilicet in Isaia) enumeratio ab excellentioribus coepit, hic vero, ab inferioribus. On the contrary, Augustine says [De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4: "It seems to me that the sevenfold operation of the Holy Ghost, of which Isaias speaks, agrees in degrees and expression with these [of which we read in Matthew 5:3: but there is a difference of order, for there [viz. in Isaias] the enumeration begins with the more excellent gifts, here, with the lower gifts."
q. 68 a. 7 co. Respondeo dicendum quod dignitas donorum dupliciter potest attendi, uno modo, simpliciter, scilicet per comparationem ad proprios actus prout procedunt a suis principiis; alio modo, secundum quid, scilicet per comparationem ad materiam. Simpliciter autem loquendo de dignitate donorum, eadem est ratio comparationis in ipsis et in virtutibus, quia dona ad omnes actus potentiarum animae perficiunt hominem, ad quos perficiunt virtutes, ut supra dictum est. Unde sicut virtutes intellectuales praeferuntur virtutibus moralibus; et in ipsis virtutibus intellectualibus contemplativae praeferuntur activis, ut sapientia intellectui, et scientia prudentiae et arti; ita tamen quod sapientia praefertur intellectui, et intellectus scientiae, sicut prudentia et synesis eubuliae, ita etiam in donis sapientia et intellectus, scientia et consilium, praeferuntur pietati et fortitudini et timori; in quibus etiam pietas praefertur fortitudini, et fortitudo timori, sicut iustitia fortitudini, et fortitudo temperantiae. Sed quantum ad materiam, fortitudo et consilium praeferuntur scientiae et pietati, quia scilicet fortitudo et consilium in arduis locum habent; pietas autem, et etiam scientia, in communibus. Sic igitur donorum dignitas ordini enumerationis respondet, partim quidem simpliciter, secundum quod sapientia et intellectus omnibus praeferuntur, partim autem secundum ordinem materiae, secundum quod consilium et fortitudo praeferuntur scientiae et pietati. I answer that, The excellence of the gifts can be measured in two ways: first, simply, viz. by comparison to their proper acts as proceeding from their principles; secondly, relatively, viz. by comparison to their matter. If we consider the excellence of the gifts simply, they follow the same rule as the virtues, as to their comparison one with another; because the gifts perfect man for all the acts of the soul's powers, even as the virtues do, as stated above (Article 4). Hence, as the intellectual virtues have the precedence of the moral virtues, and among the intellectual virtues, the contemplative are preferable to the active, viz. wisdom, understanding and science to prudence and art (yet so that wisdom stands before understanding, and understanding before science, and prudence and synesis before eubulia): so also among the gifts, wisdom, understanding, knowledge, and counsel are more excellent than piety, fortitude, and fear; and among the latter, piety excels fortitude, and fortitude fear, even as justice surpasses fortitude, and fortitude temperance. But in regard to their matter, fortitude and counsel precede knowledge and piety: because fortitude and counsel are concerned with difficult matters, whereas piety and knowledge regard ordinary matters. Consequently the excellence of the gifts corresponds with the order in which they are enumerated; but so far as wisdom and understanding are given the preference to the others, their excellence is considered simply, while, so far, as counsel and fortitude are preferred to knowledge and piety, it is considered with regard to their matter.
q. 68 a. 7 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod timor maxime requiritur quasi primordium quoddam perfectionis donorum, quia initium sapientiae timor domini, non propter hoc quod sit ceteris dignius. Prius enim est, secundum ordinem generationis, ut aliquis recedat a malo, quod fit per timorem, ut dicitur Proverb. XVI; quam quod operetur bonum, quod fit per alia dona. Reply to Objection 1. Fear is chiefly required as being the foundation, so to speak, of the perfection of the other gifts, for "the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom" (Psalm 110:10; Sirach 1:16), and not as though it were more excellent than the others. Because, in the order of generation, man departs from evil on account of fear (Proverbs 16:16), before doing good works, and which result from the other gifts.
q. 68 a. 7 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod pietas non comparatur in verbis apostoli, omnibus donis Dei, sed soli corporali exercitationi, de qua praemittit quod ad modicum utilis est. Reply to Objection 2. In the words quoted from the Apostle, piety is not compared with all God's gifts, but only with "bodily exercise," of which he had said it "is profitable to little."
q. 68 a. 7 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod scientia etsi praeferatur consilio ratione iudicii, tamen consilium praefertur ratione materiae, nam consilium non habet locum nisi in arduis, ut dicitur in III Ethic.; sed iudicium scientiae in omnibus locum habet. Reply to Objection 3. Although knowledge stands before counsel by reason of its judgment, yet counsel is more excellent by reason of its matter: for counsel is only concerned with matters of difficulty (Ethic. iii, 3), whereas the judgment of knowledge embraces all matters.
q. 68 a. 7 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod dona directiva, quae pertinent ad rationem, donis exequentibus digniora sunt, si considerentur per comparationem ad actus prout egrediuntur a potentiis, ratio enim appetitivae praeeminet, ut regulans regulato. Sed ratione materiae, adiungitur consilium fortitudini, sicut directivum exequenti, et similiter scientia pietati, quia scilicet consilium et fortitudo in arduis locum habent, scientia autem et pietas etiam in communibus. Et ideo consilium simul cum fortitudine, ratione materiae, numeratur ante scientiam et pietatem. Reply to Objection 4. The directive gifts which pertain to the reason are more excellent than the executive gifts, if we consider them in relation to their acts as proceeding from their powers, because reason transcends the appetite as a rule transcends the thing ruled. But on the part of the matter, counsel is united to fortitude as the directive power to the executive, and so is knowledge united to piety: because counsel and fortitude are concerned with matters of difficulty, while knowledge and piety are concerned with ordinary matters. Hence counsel together with fortitude, by reason of their matter, are given the preference to knowledge and piety.
q. 68 a. 8 arg. 1 Ad octavum sic proceditur. Videtur quod virtutes sint praeferendae donis. Dicit enim Augustinus, in XV de Trin., de caritate loquens, nullum est isto Dei dono excellentius. Solum est quod dividit inter filios regni aeterni, et filios perditionis aeternae, dantur et alia per spiritum sanctum munera, sed sine caritate nihil prosunt. Sed caritas est virtus. Ergo virtus est potior donis spiritus sancti. Objection 1. It would seem that the virtues are more excellent than the gifts. For Augustine says (De Trin. xv, 18) while speaking of charity: "No gift of God is more excellent than this. It is this alone which divides the children of the eternal kingdom from the children of eternal damnation. Other gifts are bestowed by the Holy Ghost, but, without charity, they avail nothing." But charity is a virtue. Therefore a virtue is more excellent than the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 8 arg. 2 Praeterea, ea quae sunt priora naturaliter, videntur esse potiora. Sed virtutes sunt priores donis spiritus sancti, dicit enim Gregorius, in II Moral., quod donum spiritus sancti in subiecta mente ante alia iustitiam, prudentiam, fortitudinem et temperantiam format, et sic eandem mentem septem mox virtutibus (idest donis) temperat, ut contra stultitiam, sapientiam; contra hebetudinem, intellectum; contra praecipitationem, consilium; contra timorem, fortitudinem; contra ignorantiam, scientiam; contra duritiam, pietatem; contra superbiam, det timorem. Ergo virtutes sunt potiores donis. Objection 2. Further, that which is first naturally, seems to be more excellent. Now the virtues precede the gifts of the Holy Ghost; for Gregory says (Moral. ii, 26) that "the gift of the Holy Ghost in the mind it works on, forms first of all justice, prudence, fortitude, temperance . . . and doth afterwards give it a temper in the seven virtues" [viz. the gifts], so "as against folly to bestow wisdom; against dullness, understanding; against rashness, counsel; against fear, fortitude; against ignorance, knowledge; against hardness of heart, piety; against piety, fear." Therefore the virtues are more excellent than the gifts.
q. 68 a. 8 arg. 3 Praeterea, virtutibus nullus male uti potest, ut Augustinus dicit. Donis autem potest aliquis male uti, dicit enim Gregorius, in I Moral., quod hostiam nostrae precis immolamus ne sapientia elevet; ne intellectus, dum subtiliter currit, oberret; ne consilium, dum se multiplicat, confundat; ne fortitudo, dum fiduciam praebet, praecipitet; ne scientia, dum novit et non diligit, inflet; ne pietas, dum se extra rectitudinem inclinat, intorqueat; ne timor, dum plus iusto trepidat, in desperationis foveam mergat. Ergo virtutes sunt digniores donis spiritus sancti. Objection 3. Further, Augustine says (De Lib. Arb. ii, 19) that "the virtues cannot be used to evil purpose." But it is possible to make evil use of the gifts, for Gregory says (Moral. i, 18): "We offer up the sacrifice of prayer . . . lest wisdom may uplift; or understanding, while it runs nimbly, deviate from the right path; or counsel, while it multiplies itself, grow into confusion; that fortitude, while it gives confidence, may not make us rash; lest knowledge, while it knows and yet loves not, may swell the mind; lest piety, while it swerves from the right line, may become distorted; and lest fear, while it is unduly alarmed, may plunge us into the pit of despair." Therefore the virtues are more excellent than the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
q. 68 a. 8 s. c. Sed contra est quod dona dantur in adiutorium virtutum contra defectus, ut patet in auctoritate inducta; et sic videtur quod perficiant quod virtutes perficere non possunt. Sunt ergo dona potiora virtutibus. On the contrary, The gifts are bestowed to assist the virtues and to remedy certain defects, as is shown in the passage quoted (Objection 2), so that, seemingly, they accomplish what the virtues cannot. Therefore the gifts are more excellent than the virtues.
q. 68 a. 8 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut ex supradictis patet, virtutes in tria genera distinguuntur, sunt enim quaedam virtutes theologicae, quaedam intellectuales, quaedam morales. Virtutes quidem theologicae sunt quibus mens humana Deo coniungitur; virtutes autem intellectuales sunt quibus ratio ipsa perficitur; virtutes autem morales sunt quibus vires appetitivae perficiuntur ad obediendum rationi. Dona autem spiritus sancti sunt quibus omnes vires animae disponuntur ad hoc quod subdantur motioni divinae. Sic ergo eadem videtur esse comparatio donorum ad virtutes theologicas, per quas homo unitur spiritui sancto moventi; sicut virtutum moralium ad virtutes intellectuales, per quas perficitur ratio, quae est virtutum moralium motiva. Unde sicut virtutes intellectuales praeferuntur virtutibus moralibus, et regulant eas; ita virtutes theologicae praeferuntur donis spiritus sancti, et regulant ea. Unde Gregorius dicit, in I Moral., quod neque ad denarii perfectionem septem filii (idest septem dona) perveniunt, nisi in fide, spe et caritate fuerit omne quod agunt. Sed si comparemus dona ad alias virtutes intellectuales vel morales, dona praeferuntur virtutibus. Quia dona perficiunt vires animae in comparatione ad spiritum sanctum moventem, virtutes autem perficiunt vel ipsam rationem, vel alias vires in ordine ad rationem. Manifestum est autem quod ad altiorem motorem oportet maiori perfectione mobile esse dispositum. Unde perfectiora sunt dona virtutibus. I answer that, As was shown above (58, 3; 62, 1), there are three kinds of virtues: for some are theological, some intellectual, and some moral. The theological virtues are those whereby man's mind is united to God; the intellectual virtues are those whereby reason itself is perfected; and the moral virtues are those which perfect the powers of appetite in obedience to the reason. On the other hand the gifts of the Holy Ghost dispose all the powers of the soul to be amenable to the Divine motion. Accordingly the gifts seem to be compared to the theological virtues, by which man is united to the Holy Ghost his Mover, in the same way as the moral virtues are compared to the intellectual virtues, which perfect the reason, the moving principle of the moral virtues. Wherefore as the intellectual virtues are more excellent than the moral virtues and control them, so the theological virtues are more excellent than the gifts of the Holy Ghost and regulate them. Hence Gregory says (Moral. i, 12) that "the seven sons," i.e. the seven gifts, "never attain the perfection of the number ten, unless all they do be done in faith, hope, and charity." But if we compare the gifts to the other virtues, intellectual and moral, then the gifts have the precedence of the virtues. Because the gifts perfect the soul's powers in relation to the Holy Ghost their Mover; whereas the virtues perfect, either the reason itself, or the other powers in relation to reason: and it is evident that the more exalted the mover, the more excellent the disposition whereby the thing moved requires to be disposed. Therefore the gifts are more perfect than the virtues.
q. 68 a. 8 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod caritas est virtus theologica; de qua concedimus quod sit potior donis. Reply to Objection 1. Charity is a theological virtue; and such we grant to be more perfect than the gifts.
q. 68 a. 8 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod aliquid est prius altero dupliciter. Uno modo, ordine perfectionis et dignitatis, sicut dilectio Dei est prior dilectione proximi. Et hoc modo dona sunt priora virtutibus intellectualibus et moralibus, posteriora vero virtutibus theologicis. Alio modo, ordine generationis seu dispositionis, sicut dilectio proximi praecedit dilectionem Dei, quantum ad actum. Et sic virtutes morales et intellectuales praecedunt dona, quia per hoc quod homo bene se habet circa rationem propriam, disponitur ad hoc quod se bene habeat in ordine ad Deum. Reply to Objection 2. There are two ways in which one thing precedes another. One is in order of perfection and dignity, as love of God precedes love of our neighbor: and in this way the gifts precede the intellectual and moral virtues, but follow the theological virtues. The other is the order of generation or disposition: thus love of one's neighbor precedes love of God, as regards the act: and in this way moral and intellectual virtues precede the gifts, since man, through being well subordinate to his own reason, is disposed to be rightly subordinate to God.
q. 68 a. 8 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod sapientia et intellectus et alia huiusmodi sunt dona spiritus sancti, secundum quod caritate informantur; quae non agit perperam, ut dicitur I ad Cor. XIII. Et ideo sapientia et intellectu et aliis huiusmodi nullus male utitur, secundum quod sunt dona spiritus sancti. Sed ad hoc quod a caritatis perfectione non recedant, unum ab altero adiuvatur. Et hoc est quod Gregorius dicere intendit. Reply to Objection 3. Wisdom and understanding and the like are gifts of the Holy Ghost, according as they are quickened by charity, which "dealeth not perversely" (1 Corinthians 13:4). Consequently wisdom and understanding and the like cannot be used to evil purpose, in so far as they are gifts of the Holy Ghost. But, lest they depart from the perfection of charity, they assist one another. This is what Gregory means to say.
q. 69 pr. Deinde considerandum est de beatitudinibus. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, utrum beatitudines a donis et virtutibus distinguantur. Secundo, de praemiis beatitudinum, utrum pertineant ad hanc vitam. Tertio, de numero beatitudinum. Quarto, de convenientia praemiorum quae eis attribuuntur. Question 69. The beatitudes Do the beatitudes differ from the gifts and virtues? The rewards of the beatitudes: do they refer to this life? The number of the beatitudes The fittingness of the rewards ascribed to the beatitudes
q. 69 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod beatitudines a virtutibus et donis non distinguantur. Augustinus enim, in libro de Serm. Dom. in monte, attribuit beatitudines in Matthaeo enumeratas, donis spiritus sancti, Ambrosius autem, super Lucam, attribuit beatitudines ibi enumeratas quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus. Ergo beatitudines non distinguuntur a virtutibus et donis. Objection 1. It would seem that the beatitudes do not differ from the virtues and gifts. For Augustine (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4) assigns the beatitudes recited by Matthew (v 3, seqq.) to the gifts of the Holy Ghost; and Ambrose in his commentary on Luke 6:20, seqq., ascribes the beatitudes mentioned there, to the four cardinal virtues. Therefore the beatitudes do not differ from the virtues and gifts.
q. 69 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, humanae voluntatis non est nisi duplex regula, scilicet ratio, et lex aeterna, ut supra habitum est. Sed virtutes perficiunt hominem in ordine ad rationem; dona autem in ordine ad legem aeternam spiritus sancti, ut ex dictis patet. Ergo non potest esse aliquid aliud pertinens ad rectitudinem voluntatis humanae, praeter virtutes et dona. Non ergo beatitudines ab eis distinguuntur. Objection 2. Further, there are but two rules of the human will: the reason and the eternal law, as stated above (19, 3; 21, 1). Now the virtues perfect man in relation to reason; while the gifts perfect him in relation to the eternal law of the Holy Ghost, as is clear from what has been said (68, A1,3, seqq.). Therefore there cannot be anything else pertaining to the rectitude of the human will, besides the virtues and gifts. Therefore the beatitudes do not differ from them.
q. 69 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, in enumeratione beatitudinum ponitur mititas, et iustitia, et misericordia; quae dicuntur esse quaedam virtutes. Ergo beatitudines non distinguuntur a virtutibus et donis. Objection 3. Further, among the beatitudes are included meekness, justice, and mercy, which are said to be virtues. Therefore the beatitudes do not differ from the virtues and gifts.
q. 69 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod quaedam enumerantur inter beatitudines, quae nec sunt virtutes nec dona; sicut paupertas, et luctus, et pax. Differunt ergo beatitudines et a virtutibus et a donis. On the contrary, Certain things are included among the beatitudes, that are neither virtues nor gifts, e.g. poverty, mourning, and peace. Therefore the beatitudes differ from the virtues and gifts.
q. 69 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, beatitudo est ultimus finis humanae vitae. Dicitur autem aliquis iam finem habere, propter spem finis obtinendi, unde et philosophus dicit, in I Ethic., quod pueri dicuntur beati propter spem; et apostolus dicit, Rom. VIII, spe salvi facti sumus. Spes autem de fine consequendo insurgit ex hoc quod aliquis convenienter movetur ad finem, et appropinquat ad ipsum, quod quidem fit per aliquam actionem. Ad finem autem beatitudinis movetur aliquis et appropinquat per operationes virtutum; et praecipue per operationes donorum, si loquamur de beatitudine aeterna, ad quam ratio non sufficit, sed in eam inducit spiritus sanctus, ad cuius obedientiam et sequelam per dona perficimur. Et ideo beatitudines distinguuntur quidem a virtutibus et donis, non sicut habitus ab eis distincti, sed sicut actus distinguuntur ab habitibus. I answer that, As stated above (2, 7; 3, 1), happiness is the last end of human life. Now one is said to possess the end already, when one hopes to possess it; wherefore the Philosopher says (Ethic. i, 9) that "children are said to be happy because they are full of hope"; and the Apostle says (Romans 8:24): "We are saved by hope." Again, we hope to obtain an end, because we are suitably moved towards that end, and approach thereto; and this implies some action. And a man is moved towards, and approaches the happy end by works of virtue, and above all by the works of the gifts, if we speak of eternal happiness, for which our reason is not sufficient, since we need to be moved by the Holy Ghost, and to be perfected with His gifts that we may obey and follow him. Consequently the beatitudes differ from the virtues and gifts, not as habit, but as act from habit.
q. 69 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Augustinus et Ambrosius attribuunt beatitudines donis et virtutibus, sicut actus attribuuntur habitibus. Dona autem sunt eminentiora virtutibus cardinalibus, ut supra dictum est. Et ideo Ambrosius, exponens beatitudines turbis propositas, attribuit eas virtutibus cardinalibus; Augustinus autem, exponens beatitudines discipulis propositas in monte, tanquam perfectioribus, attribuit eas donis spiritus sancti. Reply to Objection 1. Augustine and Ambrose assign the beatitudes to the gifts and virtues, as acts are ascribed to habits. But the gifts are more excellent than the cardinal virtues, as stated above (Question 68, Article 8). Wherefore Ambrose, in explaining the beatitudes propounded to the throng, assigns them to the cardinal virtues, whereas Augustine, who is explaining the beatitudes delivered to the disciples on the mountain, and so to those who were more perfect, ascribes them to the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
q. 69 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod ratio illa probat quod non sunt alii habitus rectificantes humanam vitam, praeter virtutes et dona. Reply to Objection 2. This argument proves that no other habits, besides the virtues and gifts, rectify human conduct.
q. 69 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod mititas accipitur pro actu mansuetudinis, et similiter dicendum est de iustitia et de misericordia. Et quamvis haec videantur esse virtutes, attribuuntur tamen donis, quia etiam dona perficiunt hominem circa omnia circa quae perficiunt virtutes, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 3. Meekness is to be taken as denoting the act of meekness: and the same applies to justice and mercy. And though these might seem to be virtues, they are nevertheless ascribed to gifts, because the gifts perfect man in all matters wherein the virtues perfect him, as stated above (Question 68, Article 2).
q. 69 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod praemia quae attribuuntur beatitudinibus, non pertineant ad hanc vitam. Dicuntur enim aliqui beati propter spem praemiorum, ut dictum est. Sed obiectum spei beatitudo est futura. Ergo praemia ista pertinent ad vitam futuram. Objection 1. It would seem that the rewards assigned to the beatitudes do not refer to this life. Because some are said to be happy because they hope for a reward, as stated above (Article 1). Now the object of hope is future happiness. Therefore these rewards refer to the life to come.
q. 69 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, Luc. VI, ponuntur quaedam poenae per oppositum ad beatitudines, cum dicitur, vae vobis qui saturati estis, quia esurietis. Vae vobis qui ridetis nunc, quia lugebitis et flebitis. Sed istae poenae non intelliguntur in hac vita, quia frequenter homines in hac vita non puniuntur, secundum illud Iob XXI, ducunt in bonis dies suos. Ergo nec praemia beatitudinum pertinent ad hanc vitam. Objection 2. Further, certain punishments are set down in opposition to the beatitudes, Luke 6:25, where we read: "Woe to you that are filled; for you shall hunger. Woe to you that now laugh, for you shall mourn and weep." Now these punishments do not refer to this life, because frequently men are not punished in this life, according to Job 21:13: "They spend their days in wealth." Therefore neither do the rewards of the beatitudes refer to this life.
q. 69 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, regnum caelorum, quod ponitur praemium paupertatis, est beatitudo caelestis; ut Augustinus dicit, XIX de Civ. Dei. Plena etiam saturitas non nisi in futura vita habetur; secundum illud Psalmi XVI, satiabor cum apparuerit gloria tua. Visio etiam Dei, et manifestatio filiationis divinae, ad vitam futuram pertinent; secundum illud I Ioan. III, nunc filii Dei sumus, et nondum apparuit quid erimus. Scimus quoniam cum apparuerit, similes ei erimus, quoniam videbimus eum sicuti est. Ergo praemia illa pertinent ad vitam futuram. Objection 3. Further, the kingdom of heaven which is set down as the reward of poverty is the happiness of heaven, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xix) [Cf. De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 1. Again, abundant fullness is not to be had save in the life to come, according to Psalm 16:15: "I shall be filled [Douay: 'satisfied'] when Thy glory shall appear." Again, it is only in the future life that we shall see God, and that our Divine sonship will be made manifest, according to 1 John 3:2: "We are now the sons of God; and it hath not yet appeared what we shall be. We know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like to Him, because we shall see Him as He is." Therefore these rewards refer to the future life.
q. 69 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in libro de Serm. Dom. in monte, ista quidem in hac vita compleri possunt, sicut completa esse in apostolis credimus. Nam illa omnimoda, et in angelicam formam mutatio, quae post hanc vitam promittitur, nullis verbis exponi potest. On the contrary, Augustine says (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4): "These promises can be fulfilled in this life, as we believe them to have been fulfilled in the apostles. For no words can express that complete change into the likeness even of an angel, which is promised to us after this life."
q. 69 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod circa ista praemia expositores sacrae Scripturae diversimode sunt locuti. Quidam enim omnia ista praemia ad futuram beatitudinem pertinere dicunt, sicut Ambrosius, super Lucam. Augustinus vero dicit ea ad praesentem vitam pertinere. Chrysostomus autem, in suis homiliis, quaedam eorum dicit pertinere ad futuram vitam, quaedam autem ad praesentem. Ad cuius evidentiam, considerandum est quod spes futurae beatitudinis potest esse in nobis propter duo, primo quidem, propter aliquam praeparationem vel dispositionem ad futuram beatitudinem, quod est per modum meriti; alio modo, per quandam inchoationem imperfectam futurae beatitudinis in viris sanctis, etiam in hac vita. Aliter enim habetur spes fructificationis arboris cum virescit frondibus, et aliter cum iam primordia fructuum incipiunt apparere. Sic igitur ea quae in beatitudinibus tanguntur tanquam merita, sunt quaedam praeparationes vel dispositiones ad beatitudinem, vel perfectam vel inchoatam. Ea vero quae ponuntur tanquam praemia, possunt esse vel ipsa beatitudo perfecta, et sic pertinent ad futuram vitam, vel aliqua inchoatio beatitudinis, sicut est in viris perfectis, et sic praemia pertinent ad praesentem vitam. Cum enim aliquis incipit proficere in actibus virtutum et donorum, potest sperari de eo quod perveniet et ad perfectionem viae, et ad perfectionem patriae. I answer that, Expounders of Holy Writ are not agreed in speaking of these rewards. For some, with Ambrose (Super Luc. v), hold that all these rewards refer to the life to come; while Augustine (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4) holds them to refer to the present life; and Chrysostom in his homilies (In Matth. xv) says that some refer to the future, and some to the present life. In order to make the matter clear we must take note that hope of future happiness may be in us for two reasons. First, by reason of our having a preparation for, or a disposition to future happiness; and this is by way of merit; secondly, by a kind of imperfect inchoation of future happiness in holy men, even in this life. For it is one thing to hope that the tree will bear fruit, when the leaves begin to appear, and another, when we see the first signs of the fruit. Accordingly, those things which are set down as merits in the beatitudes, are a kind of preparation for, or disposition to happiness, either perfect or inchoate: while those that are assigned as rewards, may be either perfect happiness, so as to refer to the future life, or some beginning of happiness, such as is found in those who have attained perfection, in which case they refer to the present life. Because when a man begins to make progress in the acts of the virtues and gifts, it is to be hoped that he will arrive at perfection, both as a wayfarer, and as a citizen of the heavenly kingdom.
q. 69 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod spes est de futura beatitudine sicut de ultimo fine, potest etiam esse et de auxilio gratiae, sicut de eo quod ducit ad finem, secundum illud Psalmi XXVII, in Deo speravit cor meum, et adiutus sum. Reply to Objection 1. Hope regards future happiness as the last end: yet it may also regard the assistance of grace as that which leads to that end, according to Psalm 27:7: "In Him hath my heart hoped, and I have been helped."
q. 69 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod mali, etsi interdum in hac vita temporales poenas non patiantur, patiuntur tamen spirituales. Unde Augustinus dicit, in I Confess., iussisti, domine, et sic est, ut poena sibi sit inordinatus animus. Et philosophus dicit, in IX Ethic., de malis, quod contendit ipsorum anima, et hoc quidem huc trahit, illud autem illuc; et postea concludit, si autem sic miserum est malum esse, fugiendum est malitiam intense. Et similiter e converso boni, etsi in hac vita quandoque non habeant corporalia praemia, nunquam tamen deficiunt a spiritualibus, etiam in hac vita; secundum illud Matth. XIX, et Marc. X, centuplum accipietis etiam in hoc saeculo. Reply to Objection 2. Although sometimes the wicked do not undergo temporal punishment in this life, yet they suffer spiritual punishment. Hence Augustine says (Confess. i): "Thou hast decreed, and it is so, Lord--that the disordered mind should be its own punishment." The Philosopher, too, says of the wicked (Ethic. ix, 4) that "their soul is divided against itself . . . one part pulls this way, another that"; and afterwards he concludes, saying: "If wickedness makes a man so miserable, he should strain every nerve to avoid vice." In like manner, although, on the other hand, the good sometimes do not receive material rewards in this life, yet they never lack spiritual rewards, even in this life, according to Matthew 19:29, and Mark 10:30: "Ye shall receive a hundred times as much" even "in this time."
q. 69 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod omnia illa praemia perfecte quidem consummabuntur in vita futura, sed interim etiam in hac vita quodammodo inchoantur. Nam regnum caelorum, ut Augustinus dicit, potest intelligi perfectae sapientiae initium, secundum quod incipit in eis spiritus regnare. Possessio etiam terrae significat affectum bonum animae requiescentis per desiderium in stabilitate haereditatis perpetuae, per terram significatae. Consolantur autem in hac vita, spiritum sanctum, qui Paracletus, idest consolator, dicitur, participando. Saturantur etiam in hac vita illo cibo de quo dominus dicit, meus cibus est ut faciam voluntatem patris mei. In hac etiam vita consequuntur homines misericordiam Dei. In hac etiam vita, purgato oculo per donum intellectus, Deus quodammodo videri potest. Similiter etiam in hac vita qui motus suos pacificant, ad similitudinem Dei accedentes, filii Dei nominantur. Tamen haec perfectius erunt in patria. Reply to Objection 3. All these rewards will be fully consummated in the life to come: but meanwhile they are, in a manner, begun, even in this life. Because the "kingdom of heaven," as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xiv; Cf. De Serm. Dom. in Monte, i, 1), can denote the beginning of perfect wisdom, in so far as "the spirit" begins to reign in men. The "possession" of the land denotes the well-ordered affections of the soul that rests, by its desire, on the solid foundation of the eternal inheritance, signified by "the land." They are "comforted" in this life, by receiving the Holy Ghost, Who is called the "Paraclete," i.e. the Comforter. They "have their fill," even in this life, of that food of which Our Lord said (John 4:34): "My meat is to do the will of Him that sent Me." Again, in this life, men "obtain" God's "Mercy." Again, the eye being cleansed by the gift of understanding, we can, so to speak, "see God." Likewise, in this life, those who are the "peacemakers" of their own movements, approach to likeness to God, and are called "the children of God." Nevertheless these things will be more perfectly fulfilled in heaven.
q. 69 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod inconvenienter enumerentur beatitudines. Attribuuntur enim beatitudines donis, ut dictum est. Donorum autem quaedam pertinent ad vitam contemplativam, scilicet sapientia et intellectus, nulla autem beatitudo ponitur in actu contemplationis, sed omnes in his quae pertinent ad vitam activam. Ergo insufficienter beatitudines enumerantur. Objection 1. It would seem that the beatitudes are unsuitably enumerated. For the beatitudes are assigned to the gifts, as stated above (1, ad 1). Now some of the gifts, viz. wisdom and understanding, belong to the contemplative life: yet no beatitude is assigned to the act of contemplation, for all are assigned to matters connected with the active life. Therefore the beatitudes are insufficiently enumerated.
q. 69 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, ad vitam activam non solum pertinent dona exequentia; sed etiam quaedam dona dirigentia, ut scientia et consilium. Nihil autem ponitur inter beatitudines quod directe ad actum scientiae vel consilii pertinere videatur. Ergo insufficienter beatitudines tanguntur. Objection 2. Further, not only do the executive gifts belong to the active life, but also some of the directive gifts, e.g. knowledge and counsel: yet none of the beatitudes seems to be directly connected with the acts of knowledge or counsel. Therefore the beatitudes are insufficiently indicated.
q. 69 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, inter dona exequentia in vita activa, timor ponitur ad paupertatem pertinere; pietas autem videtur pertinere ad beatitudinem misericordiae. Nihil autem ponitur directe ad fortitudinem pertinens. Ergo insufficienter enumerantur beatitudines. Objection 3. Further, among the executive gifts connected with the active life, fear is said to be connected with poverty, while piety seems to correspond to the beatitude of mercy: yet nothing is included directly connected with justice. Therefore the beatitudes are insufficiently enumerated.
q. 69 a. 3 arg. 4 Praeterea, in sacra Scriptura tanguntur multae aliae beatitudines, sicut Iob V, dicitur, beatus homo qui corripitur a domino; et in Psalmo I, beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum; et Proverb. III, beatus vir qui invenit sapientiam. Ergo insufficienter beatitudines enumerantur. Objection 4. Further, many other beatitudes are mentioned in Holy Writ. Thus, it is written (Job 5:17): "Blessed is the man whom God correcteth"; and (Psalm 1:1): "Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly"; and (Proverbs 3:13): "Blessed is the man that findeth wisdom." Therefore the beatitudes are insufficiently enumerated.
q. 69 a. 3 s. c. 1 Sed contra, videtur quod superflue enumerentur. Sunt enim septem dona spiritus sancti. Beatitudines autem tanguntur octo. Objection 5. On the other hand, it seems that too many are mentioned. For there are seven gifts of the Holy Ghost: whereas eight beatitudes are indicated.
q. 69 a. 3 s. c. 2 Praeterea, Luc. VI, ponuntur quatuor tantum beatitudines. Superflue ergo enumerantur septem, vel octo, in Matthaeo. Objection 6. Further, only four beatitudes are indicated in Luke 6. Therefore the seven or eight mentioned in Matthew 5 are too many.
q. 69 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod beatitudines istae convenientissime enumerantur. Ad cuius evidentiam, est considerandum quod triplicem beatitudinem aliqui posuerunt, quidam enim posuerunt beatitudinem in vita voluptuosa; quidam in vita activa; quidam vero in vita contemplativa. Hae autem tres beatitudines diversimode se habent ad beatitudinem futuram, cuius spe dicimur hic beati. Nam beatitudo voluptuosa, quia falsa est et rationi contraria, impedimentum est beatitudinis futurae. Beatitudo vero activae vitae dispositiva est ad beatitudinem futuram. Beatitudo autem contemplativa, si sit perfecta, est essentialiter ipsa futura beatitudo, si autem sit imperfecta, est quaedam inchoatio eius. Et ideo dominus primo quidem posuit quasdam beatitudines quasi removentes impedimentum voluptuosae beatitudinis. Consistit enim voluptuosa vita in duobus. Primo quidem, in affluentia exteriorum bonorum, sive sint divitiae, sive sint honores. A quibus quidem retrahitur homo per virtutem sic ut moderate eis utatur, per donum autem excellentiori modo, ut scilicet homo totaliter ea contemnat. Unde prima beatitudo ponitur, beati pauperes spiritu, quod potest referri vel ad contemptum divitiarum; vel ad contemptum honorum, quod fit per humilitatem. Secundo vero voluptuosa vita consistit in sequendo proprias passiones, sive irascibilis sive concupiscibilis. A sequela autem passionum irascibilis, retrahit virtus ne homo in eis superfluat, secundum regulam rationis, donum autem excellentiori modo, ut scilicet homo, secundum voluntatem divinam, totaliter ab eis tranquillus reddatur. Unde secunda beatitudo ponitur, beati mites. A sequela vero passionum concupiscibilis, retrahit virtus, moderate huiusmodi passionibus utendo, donum vero, eas, si necesse fuerit, totaliter abiiciendo; quinimmo, si necessarium fuerit, voluntarium luctum assumendo. Unde tertia beatitudo ponitur, beati qui lugent. Activa vero vita in his consistit praecipue quae proximis exhibemus, vel sub ratione debiti, vel sub ratione spontanei beneficii. Et ad primum quidem nos virtus disponit, ut ea quae debemus proximis, non recusemus exhibere, quod pertinet ad iustitiam. Donum autem ad hoc ipsum abundantiori quodam affectu nos inducit, ut scilicet ferventi desiderio opera iustitiae impleamus, sicut ferventi desiderio esuriens et sitiens cupit cibum vel potum. Unde quarta beatitudo ponitur, beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt iustitiam. Circa spontanea vero dona nos perficit virtus ut illis donemus quibus ratio dictat esse donandum, puta amicis aut aliis nobis coniunctis, quod pertinet ad virtutem liberalitatis. Sed donum, propter Dei reverentiam, solam necessitatem considerat in his quibus gratuita beneficia praestat, unde dicitur Luc. XIV, cum facis prandium aut coenam, noli vocare amicos neque fratres tuos etc., sed voca pauperes et debiles etc., quod proprie est misereri. Et ideo quinta beatitudo ponitur, beati misericordes. Ea vero quae ad contemplativam vitam pertinent, vel sunt ipsa beatitudo finalis, vel aliqua inchoatio eius, et ideo non ponuntur in beatitudinibus tanquam merita, sed tanquam praemia. Ponuntur autem tanquam merita effectus activae vitae, quibus homo disponitur ad contemplativam vitam. Effectus autem activae vitae, quantum ad virtutes et dona quibus homo perficitur in seipso, est munditia cordis, ut scilicet mens hominis passionibus non inquinetur. Unde sexta beatitudo ponitur, beati mundo corde. Quantum vero ad virtutes et dona quibus homo perficitur in comparatione ad proximum, effectus activae vitae est pax; secundum illud Isaiae XXXII, opus iustitiae pax. Et ideo septima beatitudo ponitur, beati pacifici. I answer that, These beatitudes are most suitably enumerated. To make this evident it must be observed that beatitude has been held to consist in one of three things: for some have ascribed it to a sensual life, some, to an active life, and some, to a contemplative life [See 3]. Now these three kinds of happiness stand in different relations to future beatitude, by hoping for which we are said to be happy. Because sensual happiness, being false and contrary to reason, is an obstacle to future beatitude; while happiness of the active life is a disposition of future beatitude; and contemplative happiness, if perfect, is the very essence of future beatitude, and, if imperfect, is a beginning thereof. And so Our Lord, in the first place, indicated certain beatitudes as removing the obstacle of sensual happiness. For a life of pleasure consists of two things. First, in the affluence of external goods, whether riches or honors; from which man is withdrawn--by a virtue so that he uses them in moderation--and by a gift, in a more excellent way, so that he despises them altogether. Hence the first beatitude is: "Blessed are the poor in spirit," which may refer either to the contempt of riches, or to the contempt of honors, which results from humility. Secondly, the sensual life consists in following the bent of one's passions, whether irascible or concupiscible. From following the irascible passions man is withdrawn--by a virtue, so that they are kept within the bounds appointed by the ruling of reason--and by a gift, in a more excellent manner, so that man, according to God's will, is altogether undisturbed by them: hence the second beatitude is: "Blessed are the meek." From following the concupiscible passions, man is withdrawn--by a virtue, so that man uses these passions in moderation--and by gift, so that, if necessary, he casts them aside altogether; nay more, so that, if need be, he makes a deliberate choice of sorrow [Cf. 35, 3]; hence the third beatitude is: "Blessed are they that mourn." Active life consists chiefly in man's relations with his neighbor, either by way of duty or by way of spontaneous gratuity. To the former we are disposed--by a virtue, so that we do not refuse to do our duty to our neighbor, which pertains to justice--and by a gift, so that we do the same much more heartily, by accomplishing works of justice with an ardent desire, even as a hungry and thirsty man eats and drinks with eager appetite. Hence the fourth beatitude is: "Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice." With regard to spontaneous favors we are perfected--by a virtue, so that we give where reason dictates we should give, e.g. to our friends or others united to us; which pertains to the virtue of liberality--and by a gift, so that, through reverence for God, we consider only the needs of those on whom we bestow our gratuitous bounty: hence it is written (Luke 14:12-13): "When thou makest a dinner or supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren," etc. . . "but . . . call the poor, the maimed," etc.; which, properly, is to have mercy: hence the fifth beatitude is: "Blessed are the merciful." Those things which concern the contemplative life, are either final beatitude itself, or some beginning thereof: wherefore they are included in the beatitudes, not as merits, but as rewards. Yet the effects of the active life, which dispose man for the contemplative life, are included in the beatitudes. Now the effect of the active life, as regards those virtues and gifts whereby man is perfected in himself, is the cleansing of man's heart, so that it is not defiled by the passions: hence the sixth beatitude is: "Blessed are the clean of heart." But as regards the virtues and gifts whereby man is perfected in relation to his neighbor, the effect of the active life is peace, according to Isaiah 32:17: "The work of justice shall be peace": hence the seventh beatitude is "Blessed are the peacemakers."
q. 69 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod actus donorum pertinentium ad vitam activam, exprimuntur in ipsis meritis, sed actus donorum pertinentium ad vitam contemplativam, exprimuntur in praemiis, ratione iam dicta. Videre enim Deum respondet dono intellectus; et conformari Deo quadam filiatione adoptiva, pertinet ad donum sapientiae. Reply to Objection 1. The acts of the gifts which belong to the active life are indicated in the merits: but the acts of the gifts pertaining to the contemplative life are indicated in the rewards, for the reason given above. Because to "see God" corresponds to the gift of understanding; and to be like God by being adoptive "children of God," corresponds to the gift of wisdom.
q. 69 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod in his quae pertinent ad activam vitam, cognitio non quaeritur propter seipsam, sed propter operationem, ut etiam philosophus dicit, in II Ethic. Et ideo, quia beatitudo aliquid ultimum importat, non computantur inter beatitudines actus donorum dirigentium in vita activa, quos scilicet eliciunt, sicut consiliari est actus consilii, et iudicare est actus scientiae, sed magis attribuuntur eis actus operativi in quibus dirigunt, sicut scientiae lugere, et consilio misereri. Reply to Objection 2. In things pertaining to the active life, knowledge is not sought for its own sake, but for the sake of operation, as even the Philosopher states (Ethic. ii, 2). And therefore, since beatitude implies something ultimate, the beatitudes do not include the acts of those gifts which direct man in the active life, such acts, to wit, as are elicited by those gifts, as, e.g. to counsel is the act of counsel, and to judge, the act of knowledge: but, on the other hand, they include those operative acts of which the gifts have the direction, as, e.g. mourning in respect of knowledge, and mercy in respect of counsel.
q. 69 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod in attributione beatitudinum ad dona, possunt duo considerari. Quorum unum est conformitas materiae. Et secundum hoc, omnes primae quinque beatitudines possunt attribui scientiae et consilio, tanquam dirigentibus. Sed inter dona exequentia distribuuntur, ita scilicet quod esuries et sitis iustitiae, et etiam misericordia, pertineant ad pietatem, quae perficit hominem in his quae sunt ad alterum; mititas autem ad fortitudinem, dicit enim Ambrosius, super Lucam, quod fortitudinis est iram vincere, indignationem cohibere, est enim fortitudo circa passiones irascibilis; paupertas vero et luctus ad donum timoris, quo homo se retrahit a cupiditatibus et delectationibus mundi. Alio modo possumus in his beatitudinibus considerare motiva ipsarum, et sic, quantum ad aliqua eorum, oportet aliter attribuere. Praecipue enim ad mansuetudinem movet reverentia ad Deum; quae pertinet ad pietatem. Ad lugendum autem movet praecipue scientia, per quam homo cognoscit defectus suos et rerum mundanarum; secundum illud Eccle. I, qui addit scientiam, addit et dolorem. Ad esuriendum autem iustitiae opera, praecipue movet animi fortitudo. Ad miserendum vero praecipue movet consilium Dei; secundum illud Dan. IV, consilium meum regi placeat, peccata tua eleemosynis redime, et iniquitates tuas misericordiis pauperum. Et hunc modum attributionis sequitur Augustinus, in libro de Serm. Dom. in monte. Reply to Objection 3. In applying the beatitudes to the gifts we may consider two things. One is likeness of matter. In this way all the first five beatitudes may be assigned to knowledge and counsel as to their directing principles: whereas they must be distributed among the executive gifts: so that, to wit, hunger and thirst for justice, and mercy too, correspond to piety, which perfects man in his relations to others; meekness to fortitude, for Ambrose says on Luke 6:22: "It is the business of fortitude to conquer anger, and to curb indignation," fortitude being about the irascible passions: poverty and mourning to the gift of fear, whereby man withdraws from the lusts and pleasures of the world. Secondly, we may consider the motives of the beatitudes: and, in this way, some of them will have to be assigned differently. Because the principal motive for meekness is reverence for God, which belongs to piety. The chief motive for mourning is knowledge, whereby man knows his failings and those of worldly things, according to Ecclesiastes 1:18: "He that addeth knowledge, addeth also sorrow [Vulgate: labor]." The principal motive for hungering after the works of justice is fortitude of the soul: and the chief motive for being merciful is God's counsel, according to Daniel 4:24: "Let my counsel be acceptable to the king [Vulgate: to thee, O king]: and redeem thou thy sins with alms, and thy iniquities with works of mercy to the poor." It is thus that Augustine assigns them (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4).
q. 69 a. 3 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod necesse est beatitudines omnes quae in sacra Scriptura ponuntur, ad has reduci vel quantum ad merita, vel quantum ad praemia, quia necesse est quod omnes pertineant aliquo modo vel ad vitam activam, vel ad vitam contemplativam. Unde quod dicitur, beatus vir qui corripitur a domino, pertinet ad beatitudinem luctus. Quod vero dicitur, beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum, pertinet ad munditiam cordis. Quod vero dicitur, beatus vir qui invenit sapientiam, pertinet ad praemium septimae beatitudinis. Et idem patet de omnibus aliis quae possunt induci. Reply to Objection 4. All the beatitudes mentioned in Holy Writ must be reduced to these, either as to the merits or as to the rewards: because they must all belong either to the active or to the contemplative life. Accordingly, when we read, "Blessed is the man whom the Lord correcteth," we must refer this to the beatitude of mourning: when we read, "Blessed is the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly," we must refer it to cleanness of heart: and when we read, "Blessed is the man that findeth wisdom," this must be referred to the reward of the seventh beatitude. The same applies to all others that can be adduced.
q. 69 a. 3 ad 5 Ad quintum dicendum quod octava beatitudo est quaedam confirmatio et manifestatio omnium praecedentium. Ex hoc enim quod aliquis est confirmatus in paupertate spiritus et mititate et aliis sequentibus, provenit quod ab his bonis propter nullam persecutionem recedit. Unde octava beatitudo quodammodo ad septem praecedentes pertinet. Reply to Objection 5. The eighth beatitude is a confirmation and declaration of all those that precede. Because from the very fact that a man is confirmed in poverty of spirit, meekness, and the rest, it follows that no persecution will induce him to renounce them. Hence the eighth beatitude corresponds, in a way, to all the preceding seven.
q. 69 a. 3 ad 6 Ad sextum dicendum quod Lucas narrat sermonem domini factum esse ad turbas. Unde beatitudines numerantur ab eo secundum capacitatem turbarum, quae solam voluptuosam et temporalem et terrenam beatitudinem noverunt. Unde dominus per quatuor beatitudines quatuor excludit quae ad praedictam beatitudinem pertinere videntur. Quorum primum est abundantia bonorum exteriorum, quod excludit per hoc quod dicit, beati pauperes. Secundum est quod sit bene homini quantum ad corpus, in cibis et potibus et aliis huiusmodi, et hoc excludit per secundum quod ponit, beati qui esuritis. Tertium est quod sit homini bene quantum ad cordis iucunditatem, et hoc excludit tertio, dicens, beati qui nunc fletis. Quartum est exterior hominum favor, et hoc excludit quarto, dicens, beati eritis cum vos oderint homines. Et sicut Ambrosius dicit, paupertas pertinet ad temperantiam, quae illecebrosa non quaerit; esuries ad iustitiam, quia qui esurit, compatitur, et, compatiendo, largitur; fletus ad prudentiam, cuius est flere occidua; pati odium hominum, ad fortitudinem. Reply to Objection 6. Luke relates Our Lord's sermon as addressed to the multitude (Luke 6:17). Hence he sets down the beatitudes according to the capacity of the multitude, who know no other happiness than pleasure, temporal and earthly: wherefore by these four beatitudes Our Lord excludes four things which seem to belong to such happiness. The first of these is abundance of external goods, which he sets aside by saying: "Blessed are ye poor." The second is that man be well off as to his body, in food and drink, and so forth; this he excludes by saying in the second place: "Blessed are ye that hunger." The third is that it should be well with man as to joyfulness of heart, and this he puts aside by saying: "Blessed are ye that weep now." The fourth is the outward favor of man; and this he excludes, saying, fourthly: "Blessed shall you be, when men shall hate you." And as Ambrose says on Luke 6:20, "poverty corresponds to temperance, which is unmoved by delights; hunger, to justice, since who hungers is compassionate and, through compassion gives; mourning, to prudence, which deplores perishable things; endurance of men's hatred belongs to fortitude."
q. 69 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod praemia beatitudinum inconvenienter enumerentur. In regno enim caelorum, quod est vita aeterna, bona omnia continentur. Posito ergo regno caelorum, non oportuit alia praemia ponere. Objection 1. It would seem that the rewards of the beatitudes are unsuitably enumerated. Because the kingdom of heaven, which is eternal life, contains all good things. Therefore, once given the kingdom of heaven, no other rewards should be mentioned.
q. 69 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, regnum caelorum ponitur pro praemio et in prima beatitudine et in octava. Ergo, eadem ratione, debuit poni in omnibus. Objection 2. Further, the kingdom of heaven is assigned as the reward, both of the first and of the eighth beatitude. Therefore, on the same ground it should have been assigned to all.
q. 69 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, in beatitudinibus proceditur ascendendo, sicut Augustinus dicit. In praemiis autem videtur procedi descendendo, nam possessio terrae est minus quam regnum caelorum. Ergo inconvenienter huiusmodi praemia assignantur. Objection 3. Further, the beatitudes are arranged in the ascending order, as Augustine remarks (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4): whereas the rewards seem to be placed in the descending order, since to "possess the land" is less than to possess "the kingdom of heaven." Therefore these rewards are unsuitably enumerated.
q. 69 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est auctoritas ipsius domini, praemia huiusmodi proponentis. On the contrary, stands the authority of Our Lord Who propounded these rewards.
q. 69 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod praemia ista convenientissime assignantur, considerata conditione beatitudinum secundum tres beatitudines supra assignatas. Tres enim primae beatitudines accipiuntur per retractionem ab his in quibus voluptuosa beatitudo consistit, quam homo desiderat quaerens id quod naturaliter desideratur, non ubi quaerere debet, scilicet in Deo, sed in rebus temporalibus et caducis. Et ideo praemia trium primarum beatitudinum accipiuntur secundum ea quae in beatitudine terrena aliqui quaerunt. Quaerunt enim homines in rebus exterioribus, scilicet divitiis et honoribus, excellentiam quandam et abundantiam, quorum utrumque importat regnum caelorum, per quod homo consequitur excellentiam et abundantiam bonorum in Deo. Et ideo regnum caelorum dominus pauperibus spiritu repromisit. Quaerunt autem homines feroces et immites per litigia et bella securitatem sibi acquirere, inimicos suos destruendo. Unde dominus repromisit mitibus securam et quietam possessionem terrae viventium, per quam significatur soliditas aeternorum bonorum. Quaerunt autem homines in concupiscentiis et delectationibus mundi, habere consolationem contra praesentis vitae labores. Et ideo dominus consolationem lugentibus repromittit. Aliae vero duae beatitudines pertinent ad opera activae beatitudinis, quae sunt opera virtutum ordinantium hominem ad proximum, a quibus operibus aliqui retrahuntur propter inordinatum amorem proprii boni. Et ideo dominus attribuit illa praemia his beatitudinibus, propter quae homines ab eis discedunt. Discedunt enim aliqui ab operibus iustitiae, non reddentes debitum, sed potius aliena rapientes ut bonis temporalibus repleantur. Et ideo dominus esurientibus iustitiam, saturitatem repromisit. Discedunt etiam aliqui ab operibus misericordiae, ne se immisceant miseriis alienis. Et ideo dominus misericordibus repromittit misericordiam, per quam ab omni miseria liberentur. Aliae vero duae ultimae beatitudines pertinent ad contemplativam felicitatem seu beatitudinem, et ideo secundum convenientiam dispositionum quae ponuntur in merito, praemia redduntur. Nam munditia oculi disponit ad clare videndum, unde mundis corde divina visio repromittitur. Constituere vero pacem vel in seipso vel inter alios, manifestat hominem esse Dei imitatorem, qui est Deus unitatis et pacis. Et ideo pro praemio redditur ei gloria divinae filiationis, quae est in perfecta coniunctione ad Deum per sapientiam consummatam. I answer that, These rewards are most suitably assigned, considering the nature of the beatitudes in relation to the three kinds of happiness indicated above (Article 3). For the first three beatitudes concerned the withdrawal of man from those things in which sensual happiness consists: which happiness man desires by seeking the object of his natural desire, not where he should seek it, viz. in God, but in temporal and perishable things. Wherefore the rewards of the first three beatitudes correspond to these things which some men seek to find in earthly happiness. For men seek in external things, viz. riches and honors, a certain excellence and abundance, both of which are implied in the kingdom of heaven, whereby man attains to excellence and abundance of good things in God. Hence Our Lord promised the kingdom of heaven to the poor in spirit. Again, cruel and pitiless men seek by wrangling and fighting to destroy their enemies so as to gain security for themselves. Hence Our Lord promised the meek a secure and peaceful possession of the land of the living, whereby the solid reality of eternal goods is denoted. Again, men seek consolation for the toils of the present life, in the lusts and pleasures of the world. Hence Our Lord promises comfort to those that mourn. Two other beatitudes belong to the works of active happiness, which are the works of virtues directing man in his relations to his neighbor: from which operations some men withdraw through inordinate love of their own good. Hence Our Lord assigns to these beatitudes rewards in correspondence with the motives for which men recede from them. For there are some who recede from acts of justice, and instead of rendering what is due, lay hands on what is not theirs, that they may abound in temporal goods. Wherefore Our Lord promised those who hunger after justice, that they shall have their fill. Some, again, recede from works of mercy, lest they be busied with other people's misery. Hence Our Lord promised the merciful that they should obtain mercy, and be delivered from all misery. The last two beatitudes belong to contemplative happiness or beatitude: hence the rewards are assigned in correspondence with the dispositions included in the merit. For cleanness of the eye disposes one to see clearly: hence the clean of heart are promised that they shall see God. Again, to make peace either in oneself or among others, shows a man to be a follower of God, Who is the God of unity and peace. Hence, as a reward, he is promised the glory of the Divine sonship, consisting in perfect union with God through consummate wisdom.
q. 69 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut Chrysostomus dicit, omnia praemia ista unum sunt in re, scilicet beatitudo aeterna; quam intellectus humanus non capit. Et ideo oportuit quod per diversa bona nobis nota, describeretur, observata convenientia ad merita quibus praemia attribuuntur. Reply to Objection 1. As Chrysostom says (Hom. xv in Matth.), all these rewards are one in reality, viz. eternal happiness, which the human intellect cannot grasp. Hence it was necessary to describe it by means of various boons known to us, while observing due proportion to the merits to which those rewards are assigned.
q. 69 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, sicut octava beatitudo est firmitas quaedam omnium beatitudinum, ita debentur sibi omnium beatitudinum praemia. Et ideo redit ad caput, ut intelligantur sibi consequenter omnia praemia attribui. Vel, secundum Ambrosium, pauperibus spiritu repromittitur regnum caelorum, quantum ad gloriam animae, sed passis persecutionem in corpore, quantum ad gloriam corporis. Reply to Objection 2. Just as the eighth beatitude is a confirmation of all the beatitudes, so it deserves all the rewards of the beatitudes. Hence it returns to the first, that we may understand all the other rewards to be attributed to it in consequence. Or else, according to Ambrose (Super Luc. v), the kingdom of heaven is promised to the poor in spirit, as regards the glory of the soul; but to those who suffer persecution in their bodies, it is promised as regards the glory of the body.
q. 69 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod etiam praemia secundum additionem se habent ad invicem. Nam plus est possidere terram regni caelorum, quam simpliciter habere, multa enim habemus quae non firmiter et pacifice possidemus. Plus est etiam consolari in regno, quam habere et possidere, multa enim cum dolore possidemus. Plus est etiam saturari quam simpliciter consolari, nam saturitas abundantiam consolationis importat. Misericordia vero excedit saturitatem, ut plus scilicet homo accipiat quam meruerit, vel desiderare potuerit. Adhuc autem maius est Deum videre, sicut maior est qui in curia regis non solum prandet, sed etiam faciem regis videt. Summam autem dignitatem in domo regia filius regis habet. Reply to Objection 3. The rewards are also arranged in ascending order. For it is more to possess the land of the heavenly kingdom than simply to have it: since we have many things without possessing them firmly and peacefully. Again, it is more to be comforted in the kingdom than to have and possess it, for there are many things the possession of which is accompanied by sorrow. Again, it is more to have one's fill than simply to be comforted, because fulness implies abundance of comfort. And mercy surpasses satiety, for thereby man receives more than he merited or was able to desire. And yet more is it to see God, even as he is a greater man who not only dines at court, but also sees the king's countenance. Lastly, the highest place in the royal palace belongs to the king's son.
q. 70 pr. Deinde considerandum est de fructibus. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. Primo, utrum fructus spiritus sancti sint actus. Secundo, utrum differant a beatitudinibus. Tertio, de eorum numero. Quarto, de oppositione eorum ad opera carnis. Question 70. The fruits of the Holy Ghost Are the fruits of the Holy Ghost acts? Do they differ from the beatitudes? Their number? Their opposition to the works of the flesh
q. 70 a. 1 arg. 1 Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod fructus spiritus sancti quos apostolus nominat ad Galat. V, non sint actus. Id enim cuius est alius fructus, non debet dici fructus, sic enim in infinitum iretur. Sed actuum nostrorum est aliquis fructus, dicitur enim Sap. III, bonorum laborum gloriosus est fructus; et Ioan. IV, qui metit, mercedem accipit, et fructum congregat in vitam aeternam. Ergo ipsi actus nostri non dicuntur fructus. Objection 1. It would seem that the fruits of the Holy Ghost, enumerated by the Apostle (Galatians 5:22-23), are not acts. For that which bears fruit, should not itself be called a fruit, else we should go on indefinitely. But our actions bear fruit: for it is written (Wisdom 3:15): "The fruit of good labor is glorious," and (John 4:36): "He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life everlasting." Therefore our actions are not to be called fruits.
q. 70 a. 1 arg. 2 Praeterea, sicut Augustinus dicit, in X de Trin., fruimur cognitis in quibus voluntas propter ipsa delectata conquiescit. Sed voluntas nostra non debet conquiescere in actibus nostris propter se. Ergo actus nostri fructus dici non debent. Objection 2. Further, as Augustine says (De Trin. x, 10), "we enjoy ['Fruimur', from which verb we have the Latin 'fructus' and the English 'fruit'] the things we know, when the will rests by rejoicing in them." But our will should not rest in our actions for their own sake. Therefore our actions should not be called fruits.
q. 70 a. 1 arg. 3 Praeterea, inter fructus spiritus sancti enumerantur ab apostolo aliquae virtutes scilicet caritas, mansuetudo, fides et castitas. Virtutes autem non sunt actus, sed habitus, ut supra dictum est. Ergo fructus non sunt actus. Objection 3. Further, among the fruits of the Holy Ghost, the Apostle numbers certain virtues, viz. charity, meekness, faith, and chastity. Now virtues are not actions but habits, as stated above (Question 55, Article 1). Therefore the fruits are not actions.
q. 70 a. 1 s. c. Sed contra est quod dicitur Matth. XII, ex fructu arbor cognoscitur; idest, ex operibus suis homo, ut ibi exponitur a sanctis. Ergo ipsi actus humani dicuntur fructus. On the contrary, It is written (Matthew 12:33): "By the fruit the tree is known"; that is to say, man is known by his works, as holy men explain the passage. Therefore human actions are called fruits.
q. 70 a. 1 co. Respondeo dicendum quod nomen fructus a corporalibus ad spiritualia est translatum. Dicitur autem in corporalibus fructus, quod ex planta producitur cum ad perfectionem pervenerit, et quandam in se suavitatem habet. Qui quidem fructus ad duo comparari potest, scilicet ad arborem producentem ipsum; et ad hominem qui fructum ex arbore adipiscitur. Secundum hoc igitur, nomen fructus in rebus spiritualibus dupliciter accipere possumus, uno modo, ut dicatur fructus hominis, quasi arboris, id quod ab eo producitur; alio modo, ut dicatur fructus hominis id quod homo adipiscitur. Non autem omne id quod adipiscitur homo, habet rationem fructus, sed id quod est ultimum, delectationem habens. Habet enim homo et agrum et arborem, quae fructus non dicuntur; sed solum id quod est ultimum, quod scilicet ex agro et arbore homo intendit habere. Et secundum hoc, fructus hominis dicitur ultimus hominis finis, quo debet frui. Si autem dicatur fructus hominis id quod ex homine producitur, sic ipsi actus humani fructus dicuntur, operatio enim est actus secundus operantis, et delectationem habet, si sit conveniens operanti. Si igitur operatio hominis procedat ab homine secundum facultatem suae rationis, sic dicitur esse fructus rationis. Si vero procedat ab homine secundum altiorem virtutem, quae est virtus spiritus sancti; sic dicitur esse operatio hominis fructus spiritus sancti, quasi cuiusdam divini seminis, dicitur enim I Ioan. III, omnis qui natus est ex Deo, peccatum non facit, quoniam semen ipsius in eo manet. I answer that, The word "fruit" has been transferred from the material to the spiritual world. Now fruit, among material things, is the product of a plant when it comes to perfection, and has a certain sweetness. This fruit has a twofold relation: to the tree that produces it, and to the man who gathers the fruit from the tree. Accordingly, in spiritual matters, we may take the word "fruit" in two ways: first, so that the fruit of man, who is likened to the tree, is that which he produces; secondly, so that man's fruit is what he gathers. Yet not all that man gathers is fruit, but only that which is last and gives pleasure. For a man has both a field and a tree, and yet these are not called fruits; but that only which is last, to wit, that which man intends to derive from the field and from the tree. In this sense man's fruit is his last end which is intended for his enjoyment. If, however, by man's fruit we understand a product of man, then human actions are called fruits: because operation is the second act of the operator, and gives pleasure if it is suitable to him. If then man's operation proceeds from man in virtue of his reason, it is said to be the fruit of his reason: but if it proceeds from him in respect of a higher power, which is the power of the Holy Ghost, then man's operation is said to be the fruit of the Holy Ghost, as of a Divine seed, for it is written (1 John 3:9): "Whosoever is born of God, committeth no sin, for His seed abideth in him."
q. 70 a. 1 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, cum fructus habeat quodammodo rationem ultimi et finis, nihil prohibet alicuius fructus esse alium fructum, sicut finis ad finem ordinatur. Opera igitur nostra inquantum sunt effectus quidam spiritus sancti in nobis operantis, habent rationem fructus, sed inquantum ordinantur ad finem vitae aeternae, sic magis habent rationem florum. Unde dicitur Eccli. XXIV, flores mei fructus honoris et honestatis. Reply to Objection 1. Since fruit is something last and final, nothing hinders one fruit bearing another fruit, even as one end is subordinate to another. And so our works, in so far as they are produced by the Holy Ghost working in us, are fruits: but, in so far as they are referred to the end which is eternal life, they should rather be called flowers: hence it is written (Sirach 24:23): "My flowers are the fruits of honor and riches."
q. 70 a. 1 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod, cum dicitur voluntas in aliquo propter se delectari, potest intelligi dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum quod ly propter dicit causam finalem, et sic propter se non delectatur aliquis nisi in ultimo fine. Alio modo, secundum quod designat causam formalem, et sic propter se aliquis potest delectari in omni eo quod delectabile est secundum suam formam. Sicut patet quod infirmus delectatur in sanitate propter se, sicut in fine; in medicina autem suavi, non sicut in fine, sed sicut in habente saporem delectabilem; in medicina autem austera, nullo modo propter se, sed solum propter aliud. Sic igitur dicendum est quod in Deo delectari debet homo propter se, sicut propter ultimum finem, in actibus autem virtuosis, non sicut propter finem, sed propter honestatem quam continent, delectabilem virtuosis. Unde Ambrosius dicit quod opera virtutum dicuntur fructus, quia suos possessores sancta et sincera delectatione reficiunt. Reply to Objection 2. When the will is said to delight in a thing for its own sake, this may be understood in two ways. First, so that the expression "for the sake of" be taken to designate the final cause; and in this way, man delights in nothing for its own sake, except the last end. Secondly, so that it expresses the formal cause; and in this way, a man may delight in anything that is delightful by reason of its form. Thus it is clear that a sick man delights in health, for its own sake, as in an end; in a nice medicine, not as in an end, but as in something tasty; and in a nasty medicine, nowise for its own sake, but only for the sake of something else. Accordingly we must say that man must delight in God for His own sake, as being his last end, and in virtuous deeds, not as being his end, but for the sake of their inherent goodness which is delightful to the virtuous. Hence Ambrose says (De Parad. xiii) that virtuous deeds are called fruits because "they refresh those that have them, with a holy and genuine delight."
q. 70 a. 1 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod nomina virtutum sumuntur quandoque pro actibus earum, sicut Augustinus dicit quod fides est credere quod non vides; et caritas est motus animi ad diligendum Deum et proximum. Et hoc modo sumuntur nomina virtutum in enumeratione fructuum. Reply to Objection 3. Sometimes the names of the virtues are applied to their actions: thus Augustine writes (Tract. xl in Joan.): "Faith is to believe what thou seest not"; and (De Doctr. Christ. iii, 10): "Charity is the movement of the soul in loving God and our neighbor." It is thus that the names of the virtues are used in reckoning the fruits.
q. 70 a. 2 arg. 1 Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod fructus a beatitudinibus non differant. Beatitudines enim attribuuntur donis, ut supra dictum est. Sed dona perficiunt hominem secundum quod movetur a spiritu sancto. Ergo beatitudines ipsae sunt fructus spiritus sancti. Objection 1. It would seem that the fruits do not differ from the beatitudes. For the beatitudes are assigned to the gifts, as stated above (69, 1, ad 1). But the gifts perfect man in so far as he is moved by the Holy Ghost. Therefore the beatitudes themselves are fruits of the Holy Ghost.
q. 70 a. 2 arg. 2 Praeterea, sicut se habet fructus vitae aeternae ad beatitudinem futuram, quae est rei; ita se habent fructus praesentis vitae ad beatitudines praesentis vitae, quae sunt spei. Sed fructus vitae aeternae est ipsa beatitudo futura. Ergo fructus vitae praesentis sunt ipsae beatitudines. Objection 2. Further, as the fruit of eternal life is to future beatitude which is that of actual possession, so are the fruits of the present life to the beatitudes of the present life, which are based on hope. Now the fruit of eternal life is identified with future beatitude. Therefore the fruits of the present life are the beatitudes.
q. 70 a. 2 arg. 3 Praeterea, de ratione fructus est quod sit quiddam ultimum et delectabile. Sed hoc pertinet ad rationem beatitudinis, ut supra dictum est. Ergo eadem ratio est fructus et beatitudinis. Ergo non debent ab invicem distingui. Objection 3. Further, fruit is essentially something ultimate and delightful. Now this is the very nature of beatitude, as stated above (3, 1; 4, 1). Therefore fruit and beatitude have the same nature, and consequently should not be distinguished from one another.
q. 70 a. 2 s. c. Sed contra, quorum species sunt diversae, ipsa quoque sunt diversa. Sed in diversas partes dividuntur et fructus et beatitudines; ut patet per numerationem utrorumque. Ergo fructus differunt a beatitudinibus. On the contrary, Things divided into different species, differ from one another. But fruits and beatitudes are divided into different parts, as is clear from the way in which they are enumerated. Therefore the fruits differ from the beatitudes.
q. 70 a. 2 co. Respondeo dicendum quod plus requiritur ad rationem beatitudinis, quam ad rationem fructus. Nam ad rationem fructus sufficit quod sit aliquid habens rationem ultimi et delectabilis, sed ad rationem beatitudinis, ulterius requiritur quod sit aliquid perfectum et excellens. Unde omnes beatitudines possunt dici fructus, sed non convertitur. Sunt enim fructus quaecumque virtuosa opera, in quibus homo delectatur. Sed beatitudines dicuntur solum perfecta opera, quae etiam, ratione suae perfectionis, magis attribuuntur donis quam virtutibus, ut supra dictum est. I answer that, More is required for a beatitude than for a fruit. Because it is sufficient for a fruit to be something ultimate and delightful; whereas for a beatitude, it must be something perfect and excellent. Hence all the beatitudes may be called fruits, but not vice versa. For the fruits are any virtuous deeds in which one delights: whereas the beatitudes are none but perfect works, and which, by reason of their perfection, are assigned to the gifts rather than to the virtues, as already stated (69, 1, ad 1).
q. 70 a. 2 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod ratio illa probat quod beatitudines sint fructus, non autem quod omnes fructus beatitudines sint. Reply to Objection 1. This argument proves the beatitudes to be fruits, but not that all the fruits are beatitudes.
q. 70 a. 2 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod fructus vitae aeternae est simpliciter ultimus et perfectus, et ideo in nullo distinguitur a beatitudine futura. Fructus autem praesentis vitae non sunt simpliciter ultimi et perfecti, et ideo non omnes fructus sunt beatitudines. Reply to Objection 2. The fruit of eternal life is ultimate and perfect simply: hence it nowise differs from future beatitude. On the other hand the fruits of the present life are not simply ultimate and perfect; wherefore not all the fruits are beatitudes.
q. 70 a. 2 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod aliquid amplius est de ratione beatitudinis quam de ratione fructus, ut dictum est. Reply to Objection 3. More is required for a beatitude than for a fruit, as stated.
q. 70 a. 3 arg. 1 Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod apostolus inconvenienter enumeret, ad Galat. V, duodecim fructus. Alibi enim dicit esse tantum unum fructum praesentis vitae; secundum illud Rom. VI, habetis fructum vestrum in sanctificatione et Isaiae XXVII dicitur, hic est omnis fructus, ut auferatur peccatum. Non ergo ponendi sunt duodecim fructus. Objection 1. It would seem that the fruits are unsuitably enumerated by the Apostle (Galatians 5:22-23). Because, elsewhere, he says that there is only one fruit of the present life; according to Romans 6:22: "You have your fruit unto sanctification." Moreover it is written (Isaiah 27:9): "This is all the fruit . . . that the sin . . . be taken away." Therefore we should not reckon twelve fruits.
q. 70 a. 3 arg. 2 Praeterea, fructus est qui ex spirituali semine exoritur, ut dictum est. Sed dominus, Matth. XIII, ponit triplicem terrae bonae fructum ex spirituali semine provenientem, scilicet centesimum, et sexagesimum, et trigesimum. Ergo non sunt ponendi duodecim fructus. Objection 2. Further, fruit is the product of spiritual seed, as stated (1). But Our Lord mentions (Matthew 13:23) a threefold fruit as growing from a spiritual seed in a good ground, viz. "hundredfold, sixtyfold," and "thirtyfold." Therefore one should not reckon twelve fruits.
q. 70 a. 3 arg. 3 Praeterea, fructus habet in sui ratione quod sit ultimum et delectabile. Sed ratio ista non invenitur in omnibus fructibus ab apostolo enumeratis, patientia enim et longanimitas videntur in rebus contristantibus esse; fides autem non habet rationem ultimi, sed magis rationem primi fundamenti. Superflue igitur huiusmodi fructus enumerantur. Objection 3. Further, the very nature of fruit is to be something ultimate and delightful. But this does not apply to all the fruits mentioned by the Apostle: for patience and long-suffering seem to imply a painful object, while faith is not something ultimate, but rather something primary and fundamental. Therefore too many fruits are enumerated.
q. 70 a. 3 s. c. Sed contra, videtur quod insufficienter et diminute enumerentur. Dictum est enim quod omnes beatitudines fructus dici possunt, sed non omnes hic enumerantur. Nihil etiam hic ponitur ad actum sapientiae pertinens, et multarum aliarum virtutum. Ergo videtur quod insufficienter enumerentur fructus. Objection 4. On the other hand, It seems that they are enumerated insufficiently and incompletely. For it has been stated (2) that all the beatitudes may be called fruits; yet not all are mentioned here. Nor is there anything corresponding to the acts of wisdom, and of many other virtues. Therefore it seems that the fruits are insufficiently enumerated.
q. 70 a. 3 co. Respondeo dicendum quod numerus duodecim fructuum ab apostolo enumeratorum, conveniens est, et possunt significari per duodecim fructus de quibus dicitur Apoc. ult., ex utraque parte fluminis lignum vitae, afferens fructus duodecim. Quia vero fructus dicitur quod ex aliquo principio procedit sicut ex semine vel radice, attendenda est distinctio horum fructuum secundum diversum processum spiritus sancti in nobis. Qui quidem processus attenditur secundum hoc, ut primo mens hominis in seipsa ordinetur; secundo vero, ordinetur ad ea quae sunt iuxta; tertio vero, ad ea quae sunt infra. Tunc autem bene mens hominis disponitur in seipsa, quando mens hominis bene se habet et in bonis et in malis. Prima autem dispositio mentis humanae ad bonum, est per amorem, qui est prima affectio et omnium affectionum radix, ut supra dictum est. Et ideo inter fructus spiritus primo ponitur caritas; in qua specialiter spiritus sanctus datur, sicut in propria similitudine, cum et ipse sit amor. Unde dicitur Rom. V, caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis. Ad amorem autem caritatis ex necessitate sequitur gaudium. Omnis enim amans gaudet ex coniunctione amati. Caritas autem semper habet praesentem Deum, quem amat; secundum illud I Ioan. IV, qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo. Unde sequela caritatis est gaudium. Perfectio autem gaudii est pax, quantum ad duo. Primo quidem, quantum ad quietem ab exterioribus conturbantibus, non enim potest perfecte gaudere de bono amato, qui in eius fruitione ab aliis perturbatur; et iterum, qui perfecte cor habet in uno pacatum, a nullo alio molestari potest, cum alia quasi nihil reputet; unde dicitur in Psalmo CXVIII, pax multa diligentibus legem tuam, et non est illis scandalum, quia scilicet ab exterioribus non perturbantur, quin Deo fruantur. Secundo, quantum ad sedationem desiderii fluctuantis, non enim perfecte gaudet de aliquo, cui non sufficit id de quo gaudet. Haec autem duo importat pax, scilicet ut neque ab exterioribus perturbemur; et ut desideria nostra conquiescant in uno. Unde post caritatem et gaudium, tertio ponitur pax. In malis autem bene se habet mens quantum ad duo. Primo quidem, ut non perturbetur mens per imminentiam malorum, quod pertinet ad patientiam. Secundo, ut non perturbetur in dilatione bonorum, quod pertinet ad longanimitatem, nam carere bono habet rationem mali, ut dicitur in V Ethic. Ad id autem quod est iuxta hominem, scilicet proximum, bene disponitur mens hominis, primo quidem, quantum ad voluntatem bene faciendi. Et ad hoc pertinet bonitas. Secundo, quantum ad beneficentiae executionem. Et ad hoc pertinet benignitas, dicuntur enim benigni quos bonus ignis amoris fervere facit ad benefaciendum proximis. Tertio, quantum ad hoc quod aequanimiter tolerentur mala ab eis illata. Et ad hoc pertinet mansuetudo, quae cohibet iras. Quarto, quantum ad hoc quod non solum per iram proximis non noceamus, sed etiam neque per fraudem vel per dolum. Et ad hoc pertinet fides, si pro fidelitate sumatur. Sed si sumatur pro fide qua creditur in Deum, sic per hanc ordinatur homo ad id quod est supra se, ut scilicet homo intellectum suum Deo subiiciat, et per consequens omnia quae ipsius sunt. Sed ad id quod infra est, bene disponitur homo, primo quidem, quantum ad exteriores actiones, per modestiam, quae in omnibus dictis et factis modum observat. Quantum ad interiores concupiscentias, per continentiam et castitatem, sive haec duo distinguantur per hoc, quod castitas refrenat hominem ad illicitis, continentia vero etiam a licitis; sive per hoc quod continens patitur concupiscentias sed non deducitur, castus autem neque patitur neque deducitur. I answer that, The number of the twelve fruits enumerated by the Apostle is suitable, and that there may be a reference to them in the twelve fruits of which it is written (Apocalypse 22:2): "On both sides of the river was the tree bearing twelve fruits." Since, however, a fruit is something that proceeds from a source as from a seed or root, the difference between these fruits must be gathered from the various ways in which the Holy Ghost proceeds in us: which process consists in this, that the mind of man is set in order, first of all, in regard to itself; secondly, in regard to things that are near it; thirdly, in regard to things that are below it. Accordingly man's mind is well disposed in regard to itself when it has a good disposition towards good things and towards evil things. Now the first disposition of the human mind towards the good is effected by love, which is the first of our emotions and the root of them all, as stated above (Question 27, Article 4). Wherefore among the fruits of the Holy Ghost, we reckon "charity," wherein the Holy Ghost is given in a special manner, as in His own likeness, since He Himself is love. Hence it is written (Romans 5:5): "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, Who is given to us." The necessary result of the love of charity is joy: because every lover rejoices at being united to the beloved. Now charity has always actual presence in God Whom it loves, according to 1 John 4:16: "He that abideth in charity, abideth in God, and God in Him": wherefore the sequel of charity is "joy." Now the perfection of joy is peace in two respects. First, as regards freedom from outward disturbance; for it is impossible to rejoice perfectly in the beloved good, if one is disturbed in the enjoyment thereof; and again, if a man's heart is perfectly set at peace in one object, he cannot be disquieted by any other, since he accounts all others as nothing; hence it is written (Psalm 118:165): "Much peace have they that love Thy Law, and to them there is no stumbling-block," because, to wit, external things do not disturb them in their enjoyment of God. Secondly, as regards the calm of the restless desire: for he does not perfectly rejoice, who is not satisfied with the object of his joy. Now peace implies these two things, namely, that we be not disturbed by external things, and that our desires rest altogether in one object. Wherefore after charity and joy, "peace" is given the third place. In evil things the mind has a good disposition, in respect of two things. First, by not being disturbed whenever evil threatens: which pertains to "patience"; secondly, by not being disturbed, whenever good things are delayed; which belongs to "long suffering," since "to lack good is a kind of evil" (Ethic. v, 3). Man's mind is well disposed as regards what is near him, viz. his neighbor, first, as to the will to do good; and to this belongs "goodness." Secondly, as to the execution of well-doing; and to this belongs "benignity," for the benign are those in whom the salutary flame [bonus ignis] of love has enkindled the desire to be kind to their neighbor. Thirdly, as to his suffering with equanimity the evils his neighbor inflicts on him. To this belongs "meekness," which curbs anger. Fourthly, in the point of our refraining from doing harm to our neighbor not only through anger, but also through fraud or deceit. To this pertains "faith," if we take it as denoting fidelity. But if we take it for the faith whereby we believe in God, then man is directed thereby to that which is above him, so that he subject his intellect and, consequently, all that is his, to God. Man is well disposed in respect of that which is below him, as regards external action, by "modesty," whereby we observe the "mode" in all our words and deeds: as regards internal desires, by "contingency" and "chastity": whether these two differ because chastity withdraws man from unlawful desires, contingency also from lawful desires: or because the continent man is subject to concupiscence, but is not led away; whereas the chaste man is neither subject to, nor led away from them.
q. 70 a. 3 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod sanctificatio fit per omnes virtutes per quas etiam peccata tolluntur. Unde fructus ibi singulariter nominatur propter unitatem generis, quod in multas species dividitur, secundum quas dicuntur multi fructus. Reply to Objection 1. Sanctification is effected by all the virtues, by which also sins are taken away. Consequently fruit is mentioned there in the singular, on account of its being generically one, though divided into many species which are spoken of as so many fruits.
q. 70 a. 3 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod fructus centesimus, sexagesimus et trigesimus non diversificantur secundum diversas species virtuosorum actuum, sed secundum diversos perfectionis gradus etiam unius virtutis. Sicut continentia coniugalis dicitur significari per fructum trigesimum; continentia vidualis per sexagesimum; virginalis autem per centesimum. Et aliis etiam modis sancti distinguunt tres evangelicos fructus secundum tres gradus virtutis. Et ponuntur tres gradus, quia cuiuslibet rei perfectio attenditur secundum principium, medium et finem. Reply to Objection 2. The hundredfold, sixtyfold, and thirtyfold fruits do not differ as various species of virtuous acts, but as various degrees of perfection, even in the same virtue. Thus contingency of the married state is said to be signified by the thirtyfold fruit; the contingency of widowhood, by the sixtyfold; and virginal contingency, by the hundredfold fruit. There are, moreover, other ways in which holy men distinguish three evangelical fruits according to the three degrees of virtue: and they speak of three degrees, because the perfection of anything is considered with respect to its beginning, its middle, and its end.
q. 70 a. 3 ad 3 Ad tertium dicendum quod ipsum quod est in tristitiis non perturbari, rationem delectabilis habet. Et fides etiam si accipiatur prout est fundamentum, habet quandam rationem ultimi et delectabilis, secundum quod continet certitudinem, unde Glossa exponit, fides, idest de invisibilibus certitudo. Reply to Objection 3. The fact of not being disturbed by painful things is something to delight in. And as to faith, if we consider it as the foundation, it has the aspect of being ultimate and delightful, in as much as it contains certainty: hence a gloss expounds thus: "Faith, which is certainly about the unseen."
q. 70 a. 3 ad 4 Ad quartum dicendum quod, sicut Augustinus dicit, super epistolam ad Galat., apostolus non hoc ita suscepit, ut doceret quod sunt (vel opera carnis, vel fructus spiritus); sed ut ostenderet in quo genere illa vitanda, illa vero sectanda sint. Unde potuissent vel plures, vel etiam pauciores fructus enumerari. Et tamen omnes donorum et virtutum actus possunt secundum quandam convenientiam ad haec reduci, secundum quod omnes virtutes et dona necesse est quod ordinent mentem aliquo praedictorum modorum. Unde et actus sapientiae, et quorumcumque donorum ordinantium ad bonum, reducuntur ad caritatem, gaudium et pacem. Ideo tamen potius haec quam alia enumeravit, quia hic enumerata magis important vel fruitionem bonorum, vel sedationem malorum; quod videtur ad rationem fructus pertinere. Reply to Objection 4. As Augustine says on Galatians 5:22-23, "the Apostle had no intention of teaching us how many [either works of the flesh, or fruits of the Spirit] there are; but to show how the former should be avoided, and the latter sought after." Hence either more or fewer fruits might have been mentioned. Nevertheless, all the acts of the gifts and virtues can be reduced to these by a certain kind of fittingness, in so far as all the virtues and gifts must needs direct the mind in one of the above-mentioned ways. Wherefore the acts of wisdom and of any gifts directing to good, are reduced to charity, joy and peace. The reason why he mentions these rather than others, is that these imply either enjoyment of good things, or relief from evils, which things seem to belong to the notion of fruit.
q. 70 a. 4 arg. 1 Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod fructus non contrarientur operibus carnis quae apostolus enumerat. Contraria enim sunt in eodem genere. Sed opera carnis non dicuntur fructus. Ergo fructus spiritus eis non contrariantur. Objection 1. It would seem that the fruits of the Holy Ghost are not contrary to the works of the flesh, which the Apostle enumerates (Galatians 5:19, seqq.). Because contraries are in the same genus. But the works of the flesh are not called fruits. Therefore the fruits of the Spirit are not contrary to them.
q. 70 a. 4 arg. 2 Praeterea, unum uni est contrarium. Sed plura enumerat apostolus opera carnis quam fructus spiritus. Ergo fructus spiritus et opera carnis non contrariantur. Objection 2. Further, one thing has a contrary. Now the Apostle mentions more works of the flesh than fruits of the Spirit. Therefore the fruits of the Spirit and the works of the flesh are not contrary to one another.
q. 70 a. 4 arg. 3 Praeterea, inter fructus spiritus primo ponuntur caritas, gaudium, pax, quibus non correspondent ea quae primo enumerantur inter opera carnis, quae sunt fornicatio, immunditia, impudicitia. Ergo fructus spiritus non contrariantur operibus carnis. Objection 3. Further, among the fruits of the Spirit, the first place is given to charity, joy, and peace: to which, fornication, uncleanness, and immodesty, which are the first of the works of the flesh are not opposed. Therefore the fruits of the Spirit are not contrary to the works of the flesh.
q. 70 a. 4 s. c. Sed contra est quod apostolus dicit ibidem, quod caro concupiscit adversus spiritum, et spiritus adversus carnem. On the contrary, The Apostle says (Galatians 5:17) that "the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh."
q. 70 a. 4 co. Respondeo dicendum quod opera carnis et fructus spiritus possunt accipi dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum communem rationem. Et hoc modo in communi fructus spiritus sancti contrariantur operibus carnis. Spiritus enim sanctus movet humanam mentem ad id quod est secundum rationem, vel potius ad id quod est supra rationem, appetitus autem carnis, qui est appetitus sensitivus, trahit ad bona sensibilia, quae sunt infra hominem. Unde sicut motus sursum et motus deorsum contrariantur in naturalibus, ita in operibus humanis contrariantur opera carnis fructibus spiritus. Alio modo possunt considerari secundum proprias rationes singulorum fructuum enumeratorum, et operum carnis. Et sic non oportet quod singula singulis contraponantur, quia, sicut dictum est, apostolus non intendit enumerare omnia opera spiritualia, nec omnia opera carnalia. Sed tamen, secundum quandam adaptationem, Augustinus, super epistolam ad Galat., contraponit singulis operibus carnis singulos fructus. Sicut fornicationi, quae est amor explendae libidinis a legitimo connubio solutus, opponitur caritas, per quam anima coniungitur Deo in qua etiam est vera castitas. Immunditiae autem sunt omnes perturbationes de illa fornicatione conceptae, quibus gaudium tranquillitatis opponitur. Idolorum autem servitus, propter quam bellum est gestum adversus Evangelium Dei, opponitur paci. Contra veneficia autem, et inimicitias et contentiones et aemulationes, animositates et dissensiones, opponuntur longanimitas, ad sustinendum mala hominum inter quos vivimus; et ad curandum, benignitas; et ad ignoscendum, bonitas. Haeresibus autem opponitur fides, invidiae, mansuetudo; ebrietatibus et comessationibus, continentia. I answer that, The works of the flesh and the fruits of the Spirit may be taken in two ways. First, in general: and in this way the fruits of the Holy Ghost considered in general are contrary to the works of the flesh. Because the Holy Ghost moves the human mind to that which is in accord with reason, or rather to that which surpasses reason: whereas the fleshly, viz. the sensitive, appetite draws man to sensible goods which are beneath him. Wherefore, since upward and downward are contrary movements in the physical order, so in human actions the works of the flesh are contrary to the fruits of the Spirit. Secondly, both fruits and fleshly works as enumerated may be considered singly, each according to its specific nature. And in this they are not of necessity contrary each to each: because, as stated above (3, ad 4), the Apostle did not intend to enumerate all the works, whether spiritual or carnal. However, by a kind of adaptation, Augustine, commenting on Galatians 5:22-23, contrasts the fruits with the carnal works, each to each. Thus "to fornication, which is the love of satisfying lust outside lawful wedlock, we may contrast charity, whereby the soul is wedded to God: wherein also is true chastity. By uncleanness we must understand whatever disturbances arise from fornication: and to these the joy of tranquillity is opposed. Idolatry, by reason of which war was waged against the Gospel of God, is opposed to peace. Against witchcrafts, enmities, contentions, emulations, wraths and quarrels, there is longsuffering, which helps us to bear the evils inflicted on us by those among whom we dwell; while kindness helps us to cure those evils; and goodness, to forgive them. In contrast to heresy there is faith; to envy, mildness; to drunkenness and revellings, contingency."
q. 70 a. 4 ad 1 Ad primum ergo dicendum quod id quod procedit ab arbore contra naturam arboris, non dicitur esse fructus eius, sed magis corruptio quaedam. Et quia virtutum opera sunt connaturalia rationi, opera vero vitiorum sunt contra rationem; ideo opera virtutum fructus dicuntur, non autem opera vitiorum. Reply to Objection 1. That which proceeds from a tree against the tree's nature, is not called its fruit, but rather its corruption. And since works of virtue are connatural to reason, while works of vice are contrary to nature, therefore it is that works of virtue are called fruits, but not so works of vice.
q. 70 a. 4 ad 2 Ad secundum dicendum quod bonum contingit uno modo, malum vero omnifariam, ut Dionysius dicit, IV cap. de Div. Nom., unde et uni virtuti plura vitia opponuntur. Et propter hoc, non est mirum si plura ponuntur opera carnis quam fructus spiritus. Reply to Objection 2. "Good happens in one way, evil in all manner of ways," as Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv): so that to one virtue many vices are contrary. Consequently we must not be surprised if the works of the flesh are more numerous than the fruits of the spirit.
q. 70 a. 4 ad 3 Ad tertium patet solutio ex dictis. The Reply to the Third Objection is clear from what has been said.




THE LOGIC MUSEUM II